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Synthroid (Levothyroxine)

Other names: Soloxine, Levothroid
The cornea is so clear from its precise alignment of fibers that unless you look closely you aren’t aware of its presence. If any interference occurs in the fibers’ orderly alignment, the cornea gets cloudy and blurs the vision. This may happen from injury, scarring, or disease. The blink reflex and the lid tend to protect the cornea by their sensitivity to the slightest touch or threat of a touch. The blink instantly wipes off anything which lands on the cornea such as dust. On the other hand, if something does trouble the cornea, one feels acute pain which is a warning to get help. Loss of this sensitivity or loss of the blink reflex or of the lid action makes the cornea vulnerable to injury. Covering the cornea with a contact lens might lose the eye’s sensitivity, blink, or lid action.
Sometimes corneas are transplanted to replace the clouding of a diseased one. Corneas for transplantation may have been donated prior to death by considerate people.
Lying between the sclera and the retina is a maze of blood vessels that bring nourishment to the rods and cones of the retina. This maze is called the choroid (pronounced KOH-royd).
A transparent, semisoft material about half the size of a ten-cent piece – the Jens – is able to change shape to focus on objects at different distances from the eye. The lens is held in place by threadlike zonular fibers, which are connected from the lens edges to tiny but powerful ciliary muscles. At the command of a nerve coming from the brain, the ciliary muscles tighten or loosen the zonular fibers. The lens, which is flexible, changes its shape just enough to focus the eye for far or near distances.
As the lens ages, it loses some of its flexibility. Focusing on close objects becomes difficult since the lens won’t bulge as well, and presbyopia sets in. That’s why some people after the age of forty require reading glasses.
During the waking hours tear fluid is produced constantly. It is a natural washer of the lens with lysozyme, a powerful germ killer. When not needed, the tear gland shuts off the tear fluid such as during sleep.
The front and rear chambers of the eye are filled with a clear fluid called the aqueous humor. The Aqueous Humor is a crystal-clear liquid. It is able to escape from the eye, if pressure is applied, and yet under normal conditions it remains constant in amount and so keeps the intraocular pressure essentially uniform. The lens, and to some extent the cornea, are devoid of blood vessels, so that their nourishment must be supplied largely by the bathing fluid, and waste products must be carried away in a similar fashion. The aqueous humor must therefore contain the building blocks necessary for tissue replacement. Such building blocks might be glucose, coenzymes, minerals, and amino acids. The aqueous humor has to transport oxygen and carry away the waste products of metabolism, including carbon dioxide, from the interior of the eye to the blood.
This same fluid permeates the gel-like substance filling the rear cavity of the eye, which is named the Vitreous Humor. The vitreous humor is regarded by eye anatomists as an intricate fibrous network supporting an optically empty fluid surrounded by a definite membrane, which separates the vitreous from the lens and from the retina. In the jellylike material the same wavy gossamer-like threads or curtains can be identified at repeated slit-lamp examinations.
A ray of light passing directly from the object you see to the retina is on a line called the visual axis. It runs through a perfectly clear series of structures so that no light is lost and no distortion or obstruction of the image takes place. These clear structures are called the optical media, and they are as we describe them, from the front to the back of the eye, the cornea, the aqueous fluid, the lens, and the vitreous fluid.

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