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Trental (Pentoxifylline)

###table###Trental(Pentoxifylline)
ENERGY METABOLISM: CALORIE, A UNIT OF ENERGY
Strictly speaking, we don’t eat “calories.” Just as we can measure length in centimeters or inches and weight in kilograms or pounds, so we can measure energy values of foods or energy needs of the body in units called calories or joules. The calorie or joule is a measure of heat. By definition, one large calorie, more correctly called a kilocalorie (kcal), is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1000 gm of water by 1°C. In nutrition the large calorie is always used, whether it is written with a small “c” calorie, or a capital “C” Calorie, or as a kilocalorie. It is 1000 times as great as the small calorie unit used in chemistry and physics.
The international unit for energy is the joule. One kilocalorie is equal to 4.184 kilojoules. Presently, food tables and energy needs of people are expressed as calories, but gradually with other metric conversions the energy values will be in terms of joules.
The energy value of food is measured in the laboratory with an instrument called a bomb calorimeter. The caloric values for foods obtained with this instrument must be corrected to allow for some losses that occur in the feces and urine. In the body, these are the corrected values for pure carbohydrate, fat, and protein:
Carbohydrate 4 kcal (17 kj) per gram
Fat 9 kcal (38 kj) per gram
Protein 4 kcal (17 kj) per gram
If we know the carbohydrate, fat, and protein values of a food or diet we can easily calculate the caloric value. For example, the caloric value of one cup of milk would be calculated thus:
12 gm carbohydrate x 4 kcal = 48
9gm fat x 9 kcal = 81
9 gm protein x 4 kcal = 36
Total kcal 165
Ordinarily we don’t need to make such calculations because tables of caloric values are readily available.
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