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Archive for the ‘Parkinson And Alzheimer’ Category

Trivastal (Piribedil)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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COMMON SKIN DISORDERS IN ADULTS: VARICOSE VEINS
Varicose veins are very common and are hereditary. They often appear between the ages of twenty and thirty and usually get worse with age. They can also worsen following pregnancy and with prolonged standing. Compression stockings provide graduated compression (that is, more compression at the ankle level) and may help prevent the progression of varicose veins, whereas support pantyhose provide only haphazard, irregular compression (usually where it is not needed) and are of no benefit in varicose vein prevention. Compression stockings are essential for those with varicose veins and should be worn on a daily basis by people who have a tendency towards varicose veins or who are standing for long periods of time each day. They are also useful during pregnancy and for long airplane journeys. Mild compression stockings are very sheer and are available in many fashionable colours. These are good for everyday wear. During treatment for varicose veins and during pregnancy moderate compression stockings are recommended.
People traditionally associate treatment of varicose veins with extensive surgery, causing unsightly scars and prolonged convalescence. Nowadays, the trend in treatment is to perform limited surgery in addition to sclerotherapy (injection of the veins). While surgery is essential for veins which originate in the groin, others can be successfully treated with sclerotherapy as an outpatient procedure, causing minimal interference with a person’s normal lifestyle.
There are now also methods of identifying abnormal veins, by Doppler Ultrasound and Duplex scanning, which mean that surgery can be more accurately planned and only ‘faulty’ veins removed. As a result, surgery is less traumatic, there is less scarring and recovery is quicker.
Sclerotherapy is an excellent alternative to surgery for minor varicose veins, requiring no hospitalization and a good, long-term cosmetic result. Minor veins can also be removed by a ‘microsurgical’ technique, whereby the veins are removed through a micropuncture and extracted with a hook which resembles a crochet needle (called a Muller hook). This latter technique leaves only imperceptible scars.
*63/150/5*

Sinemet (Carbidopa Levodopa)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Sinemet(CarbidopaLevodopa)
COMMON SKIN DISORDERS IN ADULTS: COLD SORES
The dreaded cold sore, which is caused by the herpes virus, always seems to appear when it is least wanted. Like other manifestations of the herpes viruses, cold sores tend to recur. The herpes virus is initially spread from person to person by direct contact, but once it becomes established it lives in the nerve cells, only to rear its ugly head following sun exposure, tiredness and stress. Most cold sores last about ten days and heal without scarring.
Cold sores can be precipitated by sunlight, so the use of lipstick or lip sunscreens can be helpful. Before a cold sore appears, a tingling sensation may be felt around the mouth. If a cream such as Zovirax or Stoxil is applied when this tingling occurs, before a cold sore appears, it may prevent it from coming up altogether. Acyclovir (Zovirax) tablets can be used to prevent cold sores which are severe or troublesome. They are very effective but unfortunately are also very expensive.
If you have active cold sores, you should avoid kissing people, especially children with eczema, as cold sores can produce a severe, widespread eruption on the face of a child with active eczema.
*41/150/5*

Kemadrin (Procyclidine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Kemadrin(Procyclidine)
SKIN DISORDERS IN ADULTS: MALE-PATTERN HAIR THINNING AND ALOPECIA AREATA
Male-pattern hair thinning
Balding in women occurs in the same way as it does in men. It is generally less severe and usually occurs diffusely from the front of the scalp to the crown. Some women have a hormone disturbance which causes the hair loss, and can also suffer from excessive hair growth on the face, irregular periods and facial acne. These women produce an excess of male-type hormones.
Because it is genetically determined, this type of hair loss cannot be readily prevented. However, oral contraceptive pills which contain high levels of progestogen can aggravate hair loss, while those with high oestrogen and low progestogen can improve the situation. There are no special shampoos, conditioners, lotions or hair treatments that prevent or decrease hair loss.
There are several ways this male-pattern hair loss can be treated. These include the use of topical Minoxidil, hair transplantation, the use of hair pieces and make-up, and hair fusion. Refer back to pages 70 to 71 for more details on these techniques. If there is a true hormonal disturbance, hormone treatment can be an option. There are now two anti-male hormone drugs on the market, called Androcur and Aldactone, which can be effective if used on a long-term basis.
Alopecia areata
This condition, which can occur in both adults and children, results in patchy hair loss. It occurs more commonly in people with eczema, and may appear suddenly after a stressful episode. In children it often improves spontaneously, but in adults it can lead to permanent, severe hair loss.
The exact cause of alopecia areata is unknown, but it is thought to be caused by an abnormality in the body’s immune system, whereby the body rejects its own hair in the way it would a foreign protein. If hair loss is limited to a few patches, cortisone injections will successfully treat the problem. If hair loss is extensive however, there are few effective remedies and fifty per cent of sufferers will lose all their hair.
*38/150/5*

Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Artane(Trihexyphenidyl)
PARKINSON’S DISEASE
Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disease that affects the nervous system. It is thought to be a result of an imbalance of the brain chemicals acetylcholine and dopamine. Although the cause is unknown, a deficiency of the chemical that helps the transfer of messages between nerve cells has been identified in certain cells.
Parkinson’s disease was named after the British medical practitioner Dr James Parkinson. In the 1800s the disease, which he called ‘shaking palsy’, was treated by practitioners with blood letting and laxatives. This type of treatment is no longer used in medicine.
Early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include infrequent blinking and it progresses to include shuffling walk, tremors, loss of appetite, fixed facial expression and drooling. Tremor may be absent in about 30 per cent of patients in the early stages of the disease; tremor by itself may be essential tremor and not Parkinson’s disease.
Herbal medicine was the only successful treatment for this condition in the past and until the introduction of L-dopa in the 1960s the herb deadly nightshade was the main medication prescribed to help control tremor. Other members of the Solanaceae family have also been used to treat the tremors associated with old age and Parkinson’s disease. However, deadly nightshade has been the most useful, in particular the roots.
This works indirectly on the parasympathetic nervous system by preventing acetylcholine from exerting its usual action on receptor cells. This action helps control micturition, tremor and excessive production of saliva. Most studies were carried out using synthetic atropine as an adjunct therapy to levodopa and not the root extract of belladonna. More studies with regard to the use of the whole herb preparation of the root need to be undertaken.
The plant Datura stramonium, another in the Solanaceae family, is also of use in the control of sialorrhea (excessive flow of saliva), rigidity and tremor. Datura contains the alkaloids hyoscyamine, hyoscine and small amounts of atropine. Datura stramonium has also been used with good results in the treatment of asthma in particular when combined with lobelia and ephedra. Take l00 mg 3 times daily of Datura stramonium (dried herb).This herb can only be medically supplied.
Ergot of rye (Clavicepspurpurea) is a fungus that forms in the ovary of the rye plant. The eating of this fungus found on rye and other similar grasses in overdose caused a disease in humans called St Anthony’s Fire. This disease was characterized by hallucination and madness. Ergot’s use dates back to the fifteenth century when it was used for treatment in obstetrics. This was reported by the German herbalist, Lonitzer. This herb was also used in neurology. Ergot alkaloids are also used medically in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. They possess an anti-parkinsonian activity by directly activating dopamine receptors in the brain. One of the alkaloid derivatives of ergot is bromocriptine. However, the use of this drug and other ergot alkaloids is limited because of a number of side effects including hypertension and delirium. Because of their toxicity, ergot alkaloids are now only used by medical practitioners.
Three other herbs that are of benefit when used for the treatment of tremor, rigidity and gait are scullcap, passion flower and valerian. These nervine herbs have anti-convulsive, antispasmodic and sedative properties that also seem to help not only the symptoms of the disease but also the general nervous system.
Supplements
Scullcap l,000mg dried herb with food 3 times daily
Passion flower 500mg dried herb 3 times daily with food
Valerian 500mg dried herb 3 times daily with food
*1/199/5*

Exelon (Rivastigmine Capsules)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Exelon(RivastigmineCapsules)
SKIN DISORDERS IN ADULTS: TREATING TEMPORARY, GENERALIZED HAIR LOSS
Hair loss, no matter what the cause, creates enormous stress and fear of complete baldness. Initial reactions often include avoiding hair washing, changing hair products and taking vitamin or zinc tablets, none of which are successful. In most situations, the hair loss is temporary and new hair will re-grow after a few months without any treatment.
If hair loss is caused by iron deficiency, a high iron diet and iron supplements should be taken. Red meat and liver are particularly good sources of iron and are better absorbed than vegetable sources or iron tablets. Vitamin С aids the absorption of iron, so it is wise to include foods such as citrus fruits, tomatoes and raw green vegetables which contain high amounts of vitamin С in your diet.
Iron deficiency due to heavy menstrual losses may require gynecological treatment in the form of hormone therapy, curettage of the uterus or even hysterectomy in severe cases.
Although hair loss is usually only temporary, a topical preparation called Minoxidil can be used to slow down hair fall and stimulate new hair growth until normal growth returns.
People who experience genuine hair loss are generally frightened of dyeing or curling their hair, thinking this may aggravate the condition. On the contrary, it is often useful to have the hair gently dyed or permed to make it appear thicker. Over-conditioning should be avoided, however, as it can make the hair look limp and thin.
*37/150/5*

Benadryl (Diphenhydramine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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CAUSES OF ASTHMA IN CHILDREN: POLLUTION, INFECTION
Pollution
This category is extremely important in triggering wheezing episodes. On many occasions I have been called out to see children with asthma only to have to fight my way through a cloud of cigarette smoke to reach them. An irritant atmosphere is deadly to a child’s lungs, and it amazes me that so many parents will subject their children to such torture. In fact I now carry round with me a small machine which analyses the amount of smoke in the air so I can show parents the high levels only one cigarette can produce.
Other pollutants that are harmful to the lungs include the smoke from coal fires, industrial smog, and car exhaust fumes.
Infection
‘When he catches a cold it goes straight on his chest.’ This is a frequent comment from parents and undoubtedly it occurs with certain types of infection. It is most important to distinguish viral infections from bacterial ones, as it is the former that produce the wheezing. The common cold is produced by a virus and this then irritates the airways, producing an asthma attack. Other infections, like tonsillitis, sinusitis, and pneumonia, are caused by different bugs called bacteria – but these for some reason do not irritate the chest. It is important to understand this as antibiotics will kill bacteria but not viruses. Antibiotics therefore have absolutely no part to play in the treatment of asthma and should not be looked upon as necessary or beneficial either by doctors or parents.
*6/211/5*

Emsam (Selegiline)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
Other names: Eldepryl
BRONCHITIS AND HOME REMEDIES
When a bronchus is inflamed, swollen and partially obstructed with mucopus, air passing through it makes a characteristic wheezing noise. Along with a cough and the copious production of mucopurulent sputum, this wheeze is sufficient to constitute the diagnosis of Bronchitis. It is sad to say that in many cases this diagnosis is one of convenience. It allows an attending general practitioner to prescribe antibiotics, which they think are in line with patient expectations. Having removed the pressure to perform, G.P.s have deliberately missed the chance of a proper diagnosis: which in many cases was asthma all along.
Even if bronchitis is the diagnosis, 50 per cent of the time antibiotics are inappropriate because the condition is viral in origin and not bacterial at all. In most cases, doctors can take a specimen of infected mucus and wait for a laboratory to come back with findings that make the use of antibiotics justified. In cases of Acute Bacterial Bronchitis, Amoxycillin is the antibiotic of choice.
Chronic bronchitis usually occurs in smokers or people with lung damage from other causes. The clinical definition of chronic bronchitis requires the presence of a chronic, productive cough for at least three successive months in two successive years. The aforementioned definition excludes chronic coughs by other causes such as cancer of the lung, heart failure; or the presence of an inhaled foreign body. Bean bag balls are an ever present worry in the airways of young children with a chronic cough.
Examination of the sputum before the prescription of antibiotics is even more important in chronic bronchitis than it is with acute bronchitis, because extensive prior use of antibiotics produces strains of bacteria that subsequent antibiotics just can’t kill. Sometimes bronchodilators such as Theodur and Nuelin are helpful in the management of chronic bronchitis, as well as steroid hormones such as Prednisone and Hydrocortisone.
Home Remedies
When a person with a productive cough is otherwise well and coping adequately with work and play it is unnecessary to present for a medical opinion; unless such a cough has not markedly abated after seven or eight days. Over the counter cough suppressants containing opiates such as codeine or dextromethorphan are adequate cough suppressants. So called expectorants or mucolytics don’t work. They are a waste of time and money.
Paracetamol and a high fluid intake act to reduce upper airway irritability and appear to reduce the frequency of a cough. The old fashioned steam inhalation with menthol and eucalyptus is still a stand by. It assists with mobilization of mucus by stimulating the activity of cilliated epithelial cells lining the inside of airway walls.
*23/131/5*