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Archive for the ‘Mental Disorders’ Category

Clozaril (Clozapine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Clozaril(Clozapine)
A SPECTRUM OF SEVERITY: MILD BDD
But most people with BDD don’t get into serious accidents or act in self-destructive ways. Like Sarah, those with milder BDD live relatively normal lives. They work, see friends, date, and raise families. I treat college students who get good grades and graduate, homemakers who successfully juggle raising children and running a home, accountants who meet their deadlines, and doctors who give their patients superb care. Many people with this disorder are productive; some are very high achievers. All of them suffer, but they manage, sometimes well.
A psychiatrist colleague of mine wondered if one of her patients had BDD but thought it unlikely because he was functioning so well. This colleague had treated several other people with BDD whose symptoms had severely impaired their functioning and she consequently thought that all people with BDD had extreme difficulties with work, socializing, and other aspects of life. But it turned out that the patient in question, who was a college professor, did in fact have BDD. He managed to perform well at work because of the effort he made to stay focused on his work and to keep his symptoms from interfering. The professor, however, viewed his functioning as less than optimal. He hadn’t applied for a job he’d wanted because he feared he’d be turned down because of his “awful” appearance. And he’d refused a promotion that would require more work because his preoccupations were so taxing. “Even though I’m very high functioning and successful,” he explained, “I’m not working up to my capacity, although no one would ever know it.”
*20/204/8*

Neurontin (Gabapentin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Neurontin(Gabapentin)
MEN’S ALCOHOLISM: BEATING THE BEAST: FIND SOME HELPING HANDS AND LET YOUR FAMILY IN ON IT
Find some helping hands. “The first line of defense for an alcoholic is a qualified self-help group,” says Dr. Nathan. “In my experience it’s the rare alcoholic who will stop drinking without involving himself in a self-help group like Alcoholics Anonymous.”
More intensive treatment such as counseling and psychotherapy also might be helpful, but they’re useless if you don’t stop drinking. Ask your doctor for help or contact an alcohol treatment center in your area. Or, for confidential information, write to Alcoholics Anonymous, P.O. Box 459, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10163, or the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, 12 West 21st Street, New York, NY 10010.
Let your family in on it. If you suspect you have a drinking problem, odds are those closest to you noticed it quite some time ago. Talk to your family. They may provide enthusiastic support.
Ask your spouse to attend counseling sessions with you. Be wary if she refuses, because it could be a sign that she also has an alcohol problem or is unwilling to admit that your drinking is out of control, says Dr. Damstra.
*34/257/8*

Thorazine (Chlorpromazine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Thorazine(Chlorpromazine)
TREATMENT FOR SKIN TROUBLES: ANALYSING THE FOOD HABITS
Planning the diet means more than just including certain foods in the daily menu. There are many other factors that can influence the digestion, and these must be carefully considered before we get down to the selection of food. Among other things we have to think about overeating, eating too rapidly, eating when tired and taking food into the stomach when the digestion of a previous meal is still going on. When we are analyzing our daily habits these things are worth thinking about. It is not a matter of following rules like a rule of thumb; it is better to inculcate them into the general way of life.
We should have three mealtimes a day because this gives the stomach time to finish its processes. To eat between meals is plain folly like trying to do one job before the other is finished. This is often a mental rather than a physical habit, and certainly is not the call of hunger. Eating when tired is a bad habit, and is asking for trouble. Such a thing may set up indigestion that will hang on for many months unless it is carefully handled. Over-eating is not the bad habit today that it was many years ago. Still, it does exist, and must be eradicated as a habit that undermines the health of the system.
Rushing over a meal will often lead to trouble and is a matter of temperament more than anything else. Persons who practice this habit feel deep down in their consciousness that eating is not important and they begrudge the time that is given to it. This’ is a habit that has usually developed in early life and will take a good deal of patience to eradicate. But it must be overcome. Taking food quickly into the stomach without thoroughly chewing it and tasting is an act of sheer vandalism. Nature has added her exquisite flavours and aromas to foods to tempt the taste and smell so that they should be enjoyed leisurely and deliberately.
It is just as important, therefore, that we bear these points in mind as it is to get the proper food into the diet. If we are out of temper with the world and ourselves and rush our meals, the digestion is bound to suffer; and no matter how pure and suitable the food may be, a stomach that is upset will fail to make good use of it. Before any kind of food can be digested and assimilated the alimentary tract must be in the condition to accomplish it, so that point precedes the regulation of the diet.
*40/154/5*

Mellaril (Thioridazine Hydrochloride)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Mellaril(ThioridazineHydrochloride)
SPORTS INJURIES AND TRAINING PREPARATION: PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND APPROPRIATE CLOTHING
No discussion, however brief, on the prevention of sports injuries would be adequate without some discussion of the importance of protective equipment. The introduction of protective sports glasses, for example, in squash and handball have exponentially reduced the risk of injuries to the eyes of players.
The mouthguard has similarly proven itself to be an invaluable protective aid, particularly for all athletes involved in contact sports. Mouthguards not only decrease the risk of dental injury, but also serve to protect the jaws from over-impacting and in turn reduce the incidence and the severity of concussion.
The risk of concussion could also be reduced if helmets were worn in those sports where forceful contact either with one’s opponent or with the equipment used in the game (e.g. cricket bat, ice-hockey puck, even a goalpost) is likely. Shin pads, knee pads, genital protectors, masks and gloves, to name only a few of the array of protective devices available, may all serve useful purposes in helping athletes to avoid unnecessary pain and injury. Note that these very items can also be used covertly to debilitate one’s opponents, thus ironically increasing the risk of injury to other players and possibly to oneself. For this reason, the use of protective clothing, including wraps, needs to be carefully monitored.
The wearing of rings or earrings, or long fingernails, can prove dangerous not only to the athlete wearing them, but also to all competitors with whom the athlete may be in contact. Protective strapping can provide a helpful way of offering support for a recent injury or recurrent injury, but can become a liability if relied upon as a substitute for the rehabilitative exercise that such injuries deserve.
The clothes you wear should themselves be suited to the temperature and the type of sport being played. Just as dehydration can easily result if you are dressed too warmly for strenuous activity in hot weather, muscles and connective tissue injuries can occur if you are not dressed warmly enough on cold days.
Finally, don’t neglect the contribution which footwear can play in reducing the risk of sporting injuries. Different footwear is now specially designed for different sports, but in general you should make certain that your shoes provide adequate arch and. Achilles support. The heel counter should be firm and the mid-sole should be flexible.
*38/107/2*

Compazine (Prochlorperazine Maleate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Compazine(ProchlorperazineMaleate)
SPORTS INJURIES AND MEN’S HEALTH: TRAINING PREPARATION
The role of the coach in ensuring that athletes are adequately prepared for competition is of vital importance. If you are your own coach, be certain that you are knowledgeable enough to make informed judgments on the following coaching matters.
It is the job of an effective coach to provide exercise programs specifically designed to enhance the overall level of fitness of an athlete. The coach must not just improve performance in the desired sport, but also improve performance in such a way that the risk of injury is minimised.
The development of the special muscle areas required to perform a jump are not necessarily the same as the muscles which protect an athlete from injury when jumping. You may also be well trained to execute a stunning pole vault, for example, but if you haven’t learned the appropriate techniques for the fall, the risk of injury will be high, despite your splendid performance in the jump.
*35/107/2*

Piracetam

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
SKIN IN CHILDHOOD: BIRTHMARKS
Port wine stain
This reddish-purple birthmark is a major cosmetic blemish which can occur anywhere on the body. It is caused by an increased number of blood vessels under the skin’s surface, and becomes darker and more lumpy with time.
Today, laser treatment of birthmarks is common. Previously, lasers such as the argon were used, but these caused several problems, especially scarring. Copper vapour lasers and pulsed dye lasers are now used to treat wine stains. This should be done early in life as the results are superior. In addition, major psychological problems can be avoided.
Strawberry birthmarks
These dark red, strawberry-like growths usually appear in the first few weeks of life, enlarge rapidly, and may bleed. They may cause major cosmetic disfigurement and can even obstruct vital organs such as the eyes. Because most strawberry birthmarks resolve by the age of seven, they largely go untreated unless there is some obstruction to breathing or to the vision. Older treatments such as radiation therapy were abandoned as they caused scarring. Nowadays, with sophisticated lasers such as the pulsed dye, the copper vapour and the Nd-Yag available, these marks can be successfully treated. This is best done early in childhood.
Pale brown birthmarks
Pale brown birthmarks are often due to an accumulation of pigment but do not have an increased risk of malignant melanoma (potentially deadly tumour). They occur at birth or appear soon after and are not generally very visible. These birthmarks often become more noticeable during summer as they grow darker following sun exposure. During winter they grow paler. They do not usually require treatment although some people have them removed for cosmetic reasons.
*12/150/5*

Flupenthixol

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
SKIN TROUBLES: CONDITIONING THE STOMACH AND THE BOWELS
It may almost be taken for granted that in all skin complaints there will be some disturbance of the digestive system, and a preparatory course will be necessary to bring it into a condition to be able to deal in a satisfactory manner with the food that is taken. The stomach should be given a rest for a few days, and during that time no solid food of any kind should be taken. Those who are possessed of sufficient will-power should keep watering only for twenty-four to forty-eight hours; others should take fruit juices only. This liquid diet may be kept up for three or four days, and will be a good start in clearing the stomach of the offending mucus.
If there has been a tendency to constipation – and this is practically certain to be the case in skin complaints – then the warm-water enema should be used once a day to clear the lower bowel and activate the intestines. Just plain water should be used, and nothing should be added to it. Its use is simple and a matter of personal experiment, and is far easier to do than to describe. It is much better and safer than taking laxatives.
This cleansing process should be followed by the all-fruit diet, if the weather is not too cold; in the middle of a cold spell it may be better to take two meals of fruit and one of nicely cooked vegetables. This restricted diet may be carried on for another four to seven days, depending on the reaction and the condition of the sufferer. Many people find it quite easy to carry on in this way for ten days or two weeks, and if the condition of the skin is responding to it the extra time will be well worth while. The bulkiness of the diet will keep the bowels acting as a rule, but there is no danger if they are rather sluggish. The flora of the colon will gradually change through the large amount of cellulose that is in the fruit and vegetables and bring the bowels back to normal activity.
The idea of this restricted diet is thoroughly to cleanse the whole alimentary tract, so that when the ordinary diet is adopted the system will be able to make full use of the nutritional elements. A short cleansing diet will do more to tone up the stomach and the bowels than any amount of medicine, and apart from its good effect upon the skin it will improve the general health. Conditioning the digestive tract in this way should be done at least twice a year. It will be beneficial to those who do not suffer from any specific trouble, and will help to prevent the development of disease, especially the complaints that have their roots in digestive disorders.
With fruit and vegetables as the basic diet it is very easy to build up a sensible daily menu. One should add the protein and the starchy foods gradually. The protein foods consist of meat, fish, eggs, cheese, nuts and such preparations, and the starchy foods are potatoes and those containing the cereal flours, bread, oatmeal and all the various things that are made from flour. As a rule it is safer to add these foods to the fruits and the vegetables rather than to approach it from the other angle, because the fruits and the vegetables should take precedence.
*41/154/5*

Strattera (Atomoxetine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Strattera(Atomoxetine)
SKIN TROUBLES: PLAN OF TREATMENT
We may speak of the treatment for a certain condition, as, for example, skin disorders; but we never permit ourselves to apply our treatment to the symptoms only. The constitutional factors that are at the back of all such conditions must always be considered.
In setting forth a plan of treatment we must therefore try to visualize the whole life of the individual, so that we may try to eradicate the various habits and practices that tend to undermine the welfare of the whole person. We say person rather than body or the part of the body that may appear to be involved, because health and disease are truly indivisible; every factor in the life of the patient plays some part in the bad adjustment from which he is suffering. At the risk of constant repetition we say that the disease cannot exist without the person, and the person and his disease are the entity. To try to separate the two leads to a faulty conception of the basis on which rational treatment should be laid.
If we are to make any distinction between the patient and his disease we must reverse the general idea and declare that the patient is more important than his disorder. To formulate the right kind of treatment, knowledge of the particular sufferer is all-important. To a large extent the person himself must be encouraged to turn an analytical eye on himself. In this way he, better than anyone else, can delve into his own being and learn of the things which are undermining his integrity. Let him try first of all to think about the things that agitate his mind. Are they real or are they of his own imagination? Something that happened, for instance, in his childhood may still be a real problem to him, causing him some kind of tension that he carries on to his more mature years. Or he may have developed the habit of allowing some little thing to act as a kind of reflex to bring fear and the resultant tension into his mind. Some such thing may set up a train of worry, making him anxious and fretful. Perhaps he has allowed ambition to make a slave of him, or it may be that in early life he has developed a competitive spirit that still keeps him on edge. A disappointment may have made him bitter towards certain people, and, of course, towards himself. All these things, and many more, which the individual will think out for himself, are associative factors which from time to time set going the health-destroying nervous tensions.
Merely to think about them is a good thing which tends to release the mind and refresh the spirit. In fact, they lose much of their power for ill if they are periodically brought into the conscious mind and given a good airing. By doing this one may, as the poet said: “clear to-day of past regrets and future fears.” Many people live their lives under great tension in the nerve-destroying atmosphere of past regrets and future fears, and there is nothing more health-breaking.
Those who suffer from chronic skin complaints will do well to think these things over very carefully as a preliminary to other forms of treatment, because it will help them to adopt a more rational attitude towards the other essential measures. It may, for example, help them to understand some of the dietetic errors that such people fall into, and sustain them also in the self-discipline that will be required to change these errors. In planning the diet suitable for such people it is not wise to lay down hard-and-fast rules as’ though the individual is of no account. It is true that certain food elements are required to keep the body in good condition, but not all foods suit all people. Personal likes and dislikes come into it, and sometimes deeply rooted objections to certain foods may be a very useful guide both to diagnosis and to effective treatment.
*39/154/5*

Lithobid (Lithium)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Lithobid(Lithium)
Other names: Eskalith, Lithotabs
SKIN IN HEALTH: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND SKIN
Because the skin forms the covering of the body we do not associate it directly with the digestive processes. Yet if we are to understand the true function of the skin, and be in a position to take care of it so that it remains in a healthy condition, we must appreciate the fact that is intimately associated with the nutrition of the whole body. As we have already pointed out, all the cells of the body live in a fluid medium; from this medium they get their nutriment, and into this medium they return the waste products of their own activity. It is therefore true to say that it is in this intercellular fluid that the final digestive process is carried out.
There is a direct connection between the alimentary tract and this fluid medium, and in the normal state of affairs a perfect balance is maintained. But this balance can be upset by indiscretions in eating, because if the stomach and the bowels are disturbed by overloading the end-results of the pressure will be felt in the inter-cellular fluid. This will mean that the fluid will be under stress of having to deal with too much nutriment and, at the same time, unable to stem the rising tide of increased cell activity. This is probably the first step in the making of congestion, which in turn is the first stage of what we call disease.
Such congested tissues lead to disorders of the circulation, because, as we have already shown, the “sea-water” of the body depends for its movement on the circulation of the blood and the lymph, and the thickened inter-cellular fluid will not circulate so freely through the small vessels. We shall not get very far if we merely try to increase the circulation by mechanical and other means, because, as we have explained, the pressure from the overloaded digestive organs is at the bottom of most of the trouble.
The skin is very much involved in such conditions, because the great network of connective tissues lying in and under it, are great reservoirs of inter-cellular fluid. When the congestion occurs in this area the skin begins to show the effects of it, and if we draw the fingers with pressure over it, large red weal will follow the course of the fingers. That is a very sure sign of congestion in the tissues of the skin, and out of this condition a great many troubles will develop. It is the basis of many acute skin complaints, especially those that have their roots in digestive disorders; for we shall find that at the back of the congestion lie the errors of nutrition that are so easily overlooked.
It is clear, therefore, that a healthy skin is directly dependent on the dietetic habits of the individual, and that it can be affected more quickly through this medium than in any other way. The habit of overeating, especially of heavy starchy and sugary foods, will affect the health of the skin much more quickly than many people imagine, and a diet deficient in mineral salts and vitamins will produce typical disorders in the skin. If the diet is lop-sided and contains too much of one kind of food, the alkaline balance of the fluids of the body may be disturbed and the connective tissue in and under the skin will become swollen with fluid. All these conditions are end-results and need no direct treatment. They need tackling at their source, i.e. in the disorders of the digestive tract.
From these observations it is clear that the health of the skin must be considered in direct relationship to the food that is eaten, and it follows that the diet must be evenly and properly balanced. In spite of, or perhaps because of, the increased knowledge we have of the vitamin content of foods, the need for balancing the diet still remains.
*11/154/5*