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Archive for the ‘Healthy Bones’ Category

Cataflam (Diclofenac)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cataflam(Diclofenac)
Other names: Emulgel, Voltaren Xr, Voltarol
RELIEF STRESS TO HELP END BACK PAIN: STRATEGIES FOR ANGER AND IRRITABILITY
If you are experiencing anger and irritability as your stress level increases, let the following suggestions help you work through this experience and move forward to a more relaxed frame of mind:
1. Accept the fact that anger is a human emotion that you are entitled to feel at times.
2. If anger is consuming your entire day, come to grips with the fact that you need to explore some avenues for behavior change. This may involve seeing a professional, talking out your reaction with a friend, or joining with others in the same situation to talk through your feelings.
3. Remember that constantly being angry is detrimental to your overall health.
4. When anger gets out of control, apologize to those you may have hurt.
5. Whenever possible, do not let yourself get into situations that you know will be unpleasant.
6. Ask your physician for a referral to a professional who can assist you in relaxing and reducing the tension that occurs from anger.
*65/135/5*

Didronel (Etidronate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Didronel(Etidronate)
LIVING WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY
For some people, adjustment to spinal cord injury is relatively smooth and easy. Others can resume a stable and productive life only after a period of emotional upheaval and economic or social struggle. The difficulties presented by a spinal cord injury often stimulate a period of soul-searching and spark a person’s capacity for creative problem-solving. These processes can lead to a renewed sense of personal strength, transcendence of loss, and development of a more meaningful “way of being in the world.”
Our experience in working with people with spinal cord injury tells us that recovery and successful living after injury go more smoothly when people know what to expect during physical and emotional recovery. Being able to recognize and cope with medical and emotional difficulties, and having an idea of how to deal with changes in social relationships, really does help. In our current health care climate, priority is given to providing basic medical care and physical rehabilitation. Sometimes, not enough time and attention are given to helping people learn psychological, sexual, social, and vocational coping skills. A person may leave the hospital with the physical equipment for a changed way of life but unprepared for the emotional and social upheavals that lie ahead.
Learning to live successfully with a spinal cord injury and its associated disability is a long and challenging process. Unlike most acute medical crises, such as a broken leg or appendicitis, spinal cord injury cannot be “fixed” and its consequences do not go away once the immediate medical crisis is over. In almost all cases, even with the best medical or surgical intervention, a spinal cord injury results in some enduring physical disability that affects one’s life in many ways. The process of adapting to a spinal cord injury continues throughout life.
Spinal cord injury has a tremendous impact on physical, psychological, social, and economic aspects of life. After the injury, most people spend a significant period of time in the hospital, undergoing emergency treatment, acute medical care, and rehabilitation.
To a great extent, self-image and identity are intertwined with the experiences of the body. Spinal cord injury interferes with these experiences by disrupting normal movement, sensation, and sexual function, and sometimes by causing pain. Spinal cord injury can make your favorite activities impossible, limit your choices, and increase your physical dependence on others.
The disruptions and limitations caused by spinal cord injury can affect the sense of self, personal relationships, and social roles.
The road to recovery has many pitfalls. Losses and changes brought about by the injury can produce lowered self-esteem, depression, family conflicts, and social isolation. Passivity, self-pity, self-neglect, and substance abuse are some of the problems that may derail your progress. Social stigma and prejudice, environmental and social barriers, and problems with the delivery of health care and economic benefits compound the emotional and physical struggles and create further obstacles to living successfully.
Spinal cord injury, like any major life crisis, can be a catalyst for positive change. You’ll find that it can shake up old ways of thinking and doing and inspire a reassessment of your values, goals, and relationships. It can sharpen the appreciation of your mind, spirituality, and emotional connections to others. It can bring a family closer together. A spinal cord injury challenges you to find new and creative channels for self-expression and to discover new pathways to a full and satisfying life.
*1/156/5*

Actonel (Risedronate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Actonel(Risedronate)
REHABILITATION PROCESS FOR PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY
For many newly injured persons, entry into the rehabilitation hospital inspires an odd mixture of hope and uncertainty. After surviving the initial trauma and hospitalization, they may see the rehabilitation process as the next step to recovery and getting back to normal, a sign of no longer being in imminent danger. Most of the time, however, the real challenge has just begun. No longer is the injured person a passive recipient of care, a broken body waiting to be healed by doctors. Full recovery depends on the ability to shift from a passive to an active role, to do more for oneself, to make decisions and choices about care and management, and to take a hard look at how to live with the disability.
As a person with spinal cord injury, you are expected to start doing things for yourself from the first day in the rehabilitation program. You won’t be treated as a sick person. But in trying to be self-sufficient after so recently being so dependent on others, and having undergone a dramatic change in function since last being independent, you are immediately confronted with the impact and extent of your physical limitations.
The game plan is different in rehabilitation – instead of submitting passively to treatments that will “cure,” the injured person is expected to participate actively in tasks that teach how to manage daily activities with, or in spite of, the disability. This is when you come face to face with the altered reality of your life. In the acute hospital you may have wondered, “Will I survive?” Now the question becomes, “How will I live, and what can I do?”
*28/156/5*

Coral Calcium

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
ACNE: ENDING BREAKOUTS ISN’T HARD TO DO – HELP IN A TUBE
If you do have acne, especially consistent, pervasive acne, modern science has provided a number of products that, together, can come pretty close to curing it.
The first line of defense is the topical, nonprescription medications available in drugstores that contain either benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid. Follow the directions on the tube. They help dry up oily skin and loosen clogged pores. If those don’t do the trick, see a dermatologist.
A professional treatment is likely to start with a round of oral antibiotics in combination with tretinoin (Retin-A), says John F. Romano, M.D., clinical assistant professor of dermatology at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center in New York City. Retin-A is a prescription-only cream that, unlike most topical medications, actually penetrates hair follicles, helping prevent acne formation at its roots.
If the acne persists, your doctor may suggest heavy artillery: isotretinoin (Accutane), taken by mouth, is a powerful drug that has proven to be remarkably effective in clearing up the most severe cases of acne—so much so that you simply don’t see the sort of acne-ravaged face today that was fairly common 20 years ago.
If taken by pregnant women, Accutane can cause birth defects. For men the side effects may include dry skin, eyes and lips, and sometimes inflammation of the nose and burning, redness or itching of the eyes. Accutane can also raise your cholesterol, something you and your doctor should check on a monthly basis.
*24/257/8*

Indocin (Indomethacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Indocin(Indomethacin)
Other names: Indocin Cr, Indocin SR
SPINAL CORD INJURY: MEDICATIONS
During the early days of hospitalization, a variety of medications are used to control the extent of damage to the spinal cord, to relieve pain, to treat infections, and to prevent other medical complications. Some of these medications are for acute care only; others may be used for months or years.
Recent research has shown that patients who receive intravenous steroids – usually methylprednisolone -in the first few hours after a spinal cord injury recover more function. Steroids reduce inflammation and may improve neurological recovery. They have a number of side effects, however, including changes in mood and thought processes that may require adjustment of the dose. Steroids are used only in the acute (immediate) management of spinal cord injury.
Blood thinners such as heparin or enoxaparin are given to prevent blood clots in the large veins of the legs and are usually combined with special stockings that help promote blood flow (as described in the next section). Blood thinners maybe prescribed for several months.
Most patients also take stool softeners to make bowel movements easier. Many also take medications to prevent stress ulcers of the stomach – a common consequence of the physical stress of spinal cord injury. Medications (such as ranitidine) that reduce acid production by the stomach can protect against ulcer formation.
*13/156/5*

Celadrin

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
SPINAL CORD INJURY: UNDERSTANDING DISEASE
Because the spinal cord is the main connection between the brain and the nerves supplying the arms, legs, and trunk, spinal cord injury usually results in both motor and sensory loss. Motor loss refers to weakness or paralysis. Sensory loss refers to the absence of bodily sensation (such as the senses of pain, touch, and temperature), a condition called anesthesia, or to a reduction in this sensation. Both kinds of loss usually affect all or part of the body below the level of the injury. Other types of sensory changes include paresthesia, tingling or “pins and needles,” and dysesthesia, pain caused by damage to the nervous system. Bowel and bladder control may also be affected.
The location of the spinal cord injury determines the parts of the body that are paralyzed or that lose sensation or function. To help you understand your injury, consider the effects of injury in the four main regions of the spinal cord.
Cervical spinal cord (CI through C8) injury causes paralysis or weakness in both arms and legs (quadriplegia, sometimes also called tetraplegia). All regions of the body below the neck or the top of the back may be affected. Frequently, though not always, quadriplegia is accompanied by loss of physical sensation, loss of bowel and bladder control (incontinence or retention), and sexual dysfunction.
Thoracic spinal cord (T1 through T12) injury is less common because the rib cage protects and stabilizes this middle area of the body. When these injuries do occur, they again affect the area below the level of injury. Thoracic spinal cord injuries may cause paralysis or weakness of the legs (paraplegia), loss of sensation, sexual dysfunction, and problems with bowel and bladder control. Arm and hand functions are usually unaffected.
Lumbar spinal cord (LI through L5) injury usually results in paralysis or weakness of the legs (paraplegia), loss of sensation, sexual dysfunction, and problems with bowel and bladder control. Shoulder, arm, and hand function are unaffected by lumbar spinal cord injury.
Sacral spinal cord (SI through S4) injury primarily causes loss of bowel and bladder control and sexual dysfunction. Some sacral injuries may also cause weakness or paralysis of the hips and legs.
An incomplete spinal cord injury results in a large variety of neurological impairments. Most spinal cord injuries are incomplete, causing greater weakness and sensory loss in some areas of the body than others. Some individuals have only minor weakness and numbness but no bowel or bladder problems. In others, the spinal cord is damaged on one side only, producing weakness of muscles on the same side and a complex pattern of sensory loss. Injuries of the central region of the spinal cord typically result in greater weakness of the arms than the legs. Injuries of the cauda equina may cause weakness, paralysis, and sensory loss in the legs, as well as loss of bowel and bladder control.
With this anatomical understanding, we can now discuss what is involved in the early treatment of spinal cord injury. The nature of early interventions corresponds mainly to the level of injury.
*6/156/5*

Feldene (Piroxicam)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Feldene(Piroxicam)
SPINAL CORD INJURY: TRAUMA AND HOSPITALIZATION
Franklin grew up in a neighborhood where violence is a fact of daily life. He had dropped out of high school after tenth grade, and at age twenty-one he was working in a factory and living with his mother and siblings. Franklin had formed an early attachment to a girlfriend he’d met in junior high school, and by the time of his injury they had a young son. Though his girlfriend and son lived with her family, Franklin saw them daily and was very close to his little boy.
Franklin was shot while walking in his neighborhood. It was a random street shooting, and Franklin thinks the teenagers who shot him were trying to “prove themselves” for gang membership or were just showing off. Franklin was shot first in the leg, then in the back. He remembers lying in the street, waiting for help. “1 had a lot of wounds and bleeding. I turned myself over and realized I couldn’t move my legs. 1 didn’t feel much pain.” But Franklin remembers feeling scared and alone. He could see some people sitting on a front porch. “I asked someone to come over and talk to me while I was lying on the ground. Someone called for help and someone came over and talked to me.” Everything seemed unreal. When the ambulance came, Franklin remembers the paramedics cutting off his pants and putting him on a board. “Police were asking my name and address, who to contact,” he recalls. “Then they put me into an ambulance.”
Franklin’s memories of the immediate aftermath of the shooting are somewhat vague and jumbled. This is typical in cases of trauma. At the hospital, he recalls, “I was awake while they were pulling the bullets out of me. When they got me back to Intensive Care, that’s when I finally slept. They had to close up a lot of flesh wounds. I think I got hit in my lung – I had some tubes.” Franklin later found out that he had been shot twelve times. He had a collapsed lung, which was repaired. Fortunately the bullets had missed other vital organs, so he was able to survive the assault.
The doctors told Franklin that he had a spinal cord injury at T9 (the ninth thoracic or upper back, vertebra) and that his prognosis was unclear because he had a lot of swelling around his spinal cord. Until the swelling went down, they wouldn’t know whether he would be able to walk. Franklin recalls feeling overwhelmed. He couldn’t focus on the meaning of the doctors’ words, so he told them to talk to his mother.
When the doctors determined that Franklin had a complete spinal cord injury and explained the consequences, he cried a lot. He realized he would have to use a wheelchair for the rest of his life. He imagined life as a paraplegic as much worse than it turned out to be. “I was lying down the whole week I was in acute care,” he remembers, “and didn’t think I’d be able to do all the things 1 can do now. I got dizzy when I got up, didn’t want to bother with it. I thought I wouldn’t be able to deal with it.”
That first week, Franklin was scared and sad. He and his family cried a lot, though he recalls that his mother, girlfriend, and siblings were always there for him and told him “everything was all right, whatever happened” to him.
Franklin’s medical condition stabilized quickly and he was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital about a week or so after his injury. His mood improved immediately, as he started getting out of bed every day, became more active, started lifting weights, and “started feeling like 7 can do this’; stopped saying 7 can’t do it.’” In rehabilitation, the staff showed him how to get in and out of a chair, get dressed, and check his skin. “Once I started doing things on my own, I felt like everything was going to be all right,” he recalls. “Even if I can’t walk, I’ll still be going about life, doing the same things that I always did, just a little bit different.”
Injuring your spinal cord transports you into a whole new territory. What can you expect during the “wilderness” phase? This depends on the individual. Each person’s experience, and each person’s base of knowledge, is different. And spinal cord injury affects people differently, depending on the location and type of the damage. The level of injury (where on the spinal cord the injury occurs) defines the point below which paralysis can occur. Whether the spinal cord is completely or partially damaged determines the extent of the weakness or paralysis. How quickly emergency intervention begins and the quality of medical care received also affect outcome. Franklin was young, strong, and lucky. Someone else – someone older, younger, weaker, or with a different injury or outlook – would have a very different experience.
Nearly everyone with spinal cord injury requires emergency room care, acute hospitalization, and inpatient rehabilitation. In many cases, surgery is required to stabilize the spine; other people do not require surgery. Some have long hospital stays; others, short.
*3/156/5*

Fosamax (Alendronate sodium)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Fosamax(Alendronatesodium)
SOME FACTS ABOUT SPINAL CORD INJURY
Before the middle of the twentieth century, the complexities and complications of spinal cord injury were not well understood. Effective medical treatments and rehabilitation methods had not yet been developed. Most people with spinal cord injury died within a few years of the injury, usually because of medical complications such as kidney failure or pneumonia.
The picture is very different today. With advances in emergency medicine, the initial survival rate for people with traumatic spinal cord injuries is much higher. And developments in medical treatment and rehabilitation have greatly reduced the incidence of fatal complications. About 220,000 people in the United States are living with spinal cord injury, and about 10,000 new injuries occur each year. Rehabilitation therapies and advanced technologies allow many people not just to survive, but to lead active, fulfilling lives and to participate in a broad range of activities.
*2/156/5*

Arcoxia (Etoricoxib)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Arcoxia(Etoricoxib)
THE REVIVAL OF TUBERCULOSIS IN AUSTRALIA
A few years ago, the mistaken belief that tuberculosis was well and truly eliminated from Australia was so firmly entrenched that insufficient attention was paid to the growing body of new statistics which could show otherwise. Consider, for example, the revival in the incidence of tuberculosis in New South Wales alone.
Little more than a decade ago, the rate of infection was so low that the few cases presented were thought by many to be statistically insignificant. A new pattern of revival has, however, been emerging.
In 1986, the overall rate of infection was 5.2 per 100 000 people. In 1987, the rate rose slightly to 5.35 per 100 000. By 1990, the rate per 100 000 had increased to 5.7 and, by 1991, the rate of infection jumped to 6.8 per 100 000. It is suspected that new figures will reveal a high level of notifications of the disease amongst the 0-4 years age group, suggesting that the overall incidence rates will continue to rise as long as there are sources of active infection. Similar trends have been noted for other airborne infectious diseases such as whooping cough and measles. Despite our general arrogance in believing that the spread of infectious disease is completely under control, the statistical trend indicates to the contrary.
*29/107/2*

Decadron (Dexamethasone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Decadron(Dexamethasone)
OSTEOPOROSIS AND HOME REMEDIES
Osteoporosis is mainly a disease of women. It affects one third of post menopausal females, causing their bones to dissolve, increasing the risk of fractured vertebrae, wrists and hips. Conventional wisdom had it that calcium supplementation could prevent the progression of osteoporosis in 30 per cent of affected women. Extensive research has failed to substantiate this formerly held belief.
Oestrogen replacement therapy has consistently displayed its capacity to prevent the course of osteoporosis in post menopausal women. With or without progesterone, there is little reason why all women entering the menopause should not seek advice as to the need for Hormone Replacement Therapy. There is still some question as to which women should be taking Hormone Replacement Therapy. Remember that 60 per cent of post menopausal women were never going to suffer from osteoporosis in the first place.
Treatment is best initiated, after the procedure of Bone Densiometry, which demonstrates the presence of active bone disease. The cost of this investigation is not born by Medicare and this factor still comes between many women and appropriate management of this unwanted and untoward outcome of “natural” female aging.
Home Remedies
White women that smoke and don’t exercise are at higher risk of osteoporosis. No smoking, walking for an hour and 15 minutes of sunlight a day are the health promotional corollaries.
Noteworthy is Germain Greer’s articulate response to the menopause. She adopts the attitude that nature knows best. She advances the “liberating” message of grow old with good grace.
Don’t try to avoid the inevitable. Osteoporosis and fractured hips are not inevitable. Let’s see if Germain Greer advances the same argument when she is lying in bed with a painful crush fracture of an osteoporotic vertebral spine.
*1/131/5*

Celebrex (Celecoxib)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Celebrex(Celecoxib)
ACNE: ZIT DEFENSE 101 – SOME USEFUL RECOMMENDATIONS
Stay dry. Just as you should avoid oily soaps, don’t put oily lotions, tonics or creams on your hair or face. “Those things can lead to a buildup of oil in your • pores,” says Thomas D. Griffin, M.D., a dermatologist at the Graduate Hospital in Philadelphia. “You don’t want to do anything that can contribute to clogging.” When you buy a sunscreen, he says, look for one that says it’s “noncomedogenic,” which means it won’t form the follicle plugs that cause acne.
Watch your diet. Although scientific evidence indicates otherwise, dermatologists concede that people’s individual physiologies might make their skin sensitive to some foods, including anything from shellfish to milk to nuts. “Tn all the studies, we’ve never proven that foods have any effect,” says Dr. Ramsey. “If patients, however, say that certain foods cause them to develop acne, which they- often do, the majority of dermatologists will encourage them to avoid those foods,”
Stay healthy and fit. One of your most effective weapons against acne is staying in shape, which includes getting plenty of rest, eating a balanced diet and exercising. “All measures that are good for general health are good for the skin,” says Dr. Shalita.
Shave safe. For men with acne, shaving can present something of an obstacle course. “What I do personally is use one of the foaming cleansers, then put on shaving cream,” says Dr. Ramsey.
“If it’s painful to shave, you might go with an electric shaver rather than a razor. It won’t cut quite as close to the skin.” Dr. Shalita adds that antibacterial shaving creams are available by prescription.
Have patience. Acne, depending on its severity, can take weeks or months to heal, even under the care of a dermatologist. Be patient, and don’t squeeze or pick your pimples—you’ll only make them worse.
*23/257/8*

Adalat (Nifedipine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
Other names: Afeditab Er, Procardia
Few things can undermine fitness faster than allergies, which stem from innumerable causes and cause reactions ranging from headaches, colds, and rashes to asthmatic attacks and even anaphylactic shock.
Basically, an allergy is a natural immunity that’s gone amuck. A seemingly harmless substance, for instance, can – in some people – cause the immune system to create excessive antibodies when none are needed, resulting in a variety of debilitating and discomforting symptoms.
Your Best Defence
• MVP a.m. and p.m.
• Vitamin В complex, 100 mg., 3 times daily
• Pantothenic acid, 1,000 mg., a.m. and p.m.
Unless you’re absolutely sure of the offending allergen, avoid highly allergenic foods, such as shellfish, chocolate, and eggs, as well as any containing additives, preservatives, food colorings, or MSG.
Anyone with a sulphate allergy must be extremely careful in selecting foods; adverse reactions can be lethal.
*1/137/5*

Arava (Leflunomide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Arava(Leflunomide)
SPINAL CORD INJURY: RATIONAL PATHS TO RECOVERY
Some might say that the only rational understanding of an accidental spinal cord injury is that it is irrational! There is no logical reason why a particular car is rear-ended on a particular day with a particular person inside. Much of life is serendipitous, chaotic, or random. Yet the human proclivity for imposing sense or order sometimes helps us cope with unexpected and disruptive life events.
Psychologists have studied the impact of attribution of responsibility on psychosocial adjustment following spinal cord injury. This dimension of cognitive processing (intellectual understanding through reasoning) of the injury refers to whether the injured person believes he or she is or is not responsible for causing the injury. One study found that patients who believed they were responsible for the injury were not as well adjusted emotionally during inpatient rehabilitation as those who believed they were not responsible. The degree of adjustment was not related to the medical staff’s ratings of patients as either “risk-deniers” (responsible) or “innocent victims” (not responsible), even though medical professionals are presumably more objective than patients. This suggests that a belief that one caused the injury is more important in adjustment than are the objective facts of the situation.
The same study found that by one year after injury, many people had changed their attribution of responsibility for the injury, and the researchers no longer saw any difference in adjustment between the groups with different beliefs. This suggests that as recovery progresses and the injured person moves out of the hospital environment, other factors become more important in overall adjustment than how responsibility is attributed. However, for those in the early phase of rehabilitation, accepting random events at face value, rather than imposing personal responsibility, may be psychologically helpful. If you are able to see your injury as neither victimization nor self-induced but simply a random event, you may be better able to put your energy into living with your injury and be less preoccupied with anger and guilt.
Viewing an accidental injury as a chance or random event may help you avoid irrational self-blame, guilt, or irresolvable anger. Yet the perception that, in general, you can control events in your life may be beneficial to your recovery. If you see your own behavior as a factor contributing to your injury (as it sometimes is – driving while drunk or participating in a risky sport without proper safety equipment, for example), you may also believe that your behavior can influence your recovery.
A related concept in psychology is locus of control, which refers to the extent to which an individual believes that changes in events and in the environment (good or bad outcomes, rewards or punishments) are either internally (self) or externally (other or chance) controlled. “Internals,” believing their behavior and actions can affect their life circumstances, tend to be more active in their approach to problematic situations. “Externals,” believing that life events are not under their control but brought about by fate, luck, or powerful external forces, are more passive and less likely to spend energy on problem-solving.
Again, the critical issue is one of cognition. What matters is not the objective fact of having control but the belief or expectation that your behavior can affect the outcome of events. For example, consider a woman with quadriplegia who is an “internal.” She has a high degree of expectancy of control and can use her mental and emotional energies to make her life more satisfying. Now consider a woman with paraplegia – with far fewer physical limitations and, viewed objectively, more control over her immediate environment – who is an “external.” She is passive and emotionally helpless, assuming that any effort will have little effect on circumstances that are beyond her control.
*60/156/5*

Sterapred (Prednisone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Sterapred(Prednisone)
Other names: Meticorten
FOOD ALLERGIES: A MAJOR SOURCE OF ILL-HEALTH
People are getting sick, in fact chronically ill, simply by eating the foods that they have been brought up to believe are good for them. As doctors continue to experience growing numbers of patients with a wide range of recurring symptoms, the medical fraternity will have to acknowledge the affect of diet on their patients’ health.
In England, recently, Professor Maurice Lessoff completed an inquiry into food allergies for the Royal College of Physicians. He said that such illnesses are common and should be taken seriously. He found that, often, people with genuine food allergies are wrongly told they have a psychological problem. How many people have been forced to lead miserable lives because narrow-minded doctors are unwilling to accept food allergy as a major cause of illness! This situation is extraordinary when you consider that 2400 years ago Hippocrates, the great Greek physician, said that the most important thing, of which a doctor should take note, is his patient’s food and drink and the effects of these things on his health.
The almost universal consumption of highly refined foods, in the West, has become a serious problem. Take-away foods eaten daily by many people are particularly dangerous as they have been processed, flavoured and tenderised with a sickening array of artificial substances. The problem is one of degree. The human body can withstand the onslaught of a considerable amount of the processed toxic rubbish, contained in the Western diet. However, there comes a time when it cannot continue to do so. It simply becomes overloaded and begins to break down. This may happen at any time in life — from childhood onwards and to any person who persists in eating the modern, universally processed Western foods. High fibre additives are not enough. These do not act as an antidote for all the manufactured foods and substances that are, literally, wearing out the body.
*44/106/2*

Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Ponstel(MefenamicAcid)
WEIGHT CONTROL: DAIRY PRODUCTS
Dairy products are excellent foods, but you must use them selectively. Use skimmed milk freely; it can be purchased from the dairy, or it may be made up conveniently and cheaply from dried skimmed milk. It contains all the protein of whole milk but almost no fat; it has the important minerals and vitamins, especially riboflavin; and much of the vitamin D is also present.
In some European countries (not the U.K.) and in the U.S.A. other alternatives are available. ‘Filled milks’ are prepared by skimming off the milk-fat and adding a vegetable oil which is low in saturated fat but rich in unsaturated fat. In many countries you can buy low-fat milk prepared by skimming off some of the fat. Both forms are somewhat ‘creamier’ to the palate than skimmed milk. Low-fat milk (with 1 per cent fat instead of 3 to 4 per cent) should be more freely available. Buttermilk is also low in fat.
Avoid milk substitutes such as ‘coffee creamers’, and ‘non-dairy fat’ (used in cake toppings and fillings) when these are made with coconut oil. Although this is a vegetable fat, 86 per cent of its fatty acids are saturated. Coconut fat is not acceptable in a cholesterol-reducing diet; nor is palm oil. Synthetic toppings may have more saturated fat than real ‘single’ cream (‘table cream’). The phrase ‘contains vegetable fat’ does not mean that the product is suitable for the prudent diet.
So the prudent dieter replaces ordinary full-cream milk by skimmed milk, low-fat milk or filled milk. Cream itself is, of course, rich in saturated fat and contains cholesterol (as do foods made from it). Put cream on your list of foods for occasional use only.
Where suitable liquid milks are unavailable, skimmed-milk powder is a convenient portable alternative which keeps well at room temperature. Skimmed or low-fat milks can be used in place of ordinary milk in cooking too.
Cheese made from whole milk is rich in saturated fatty acid (one third to two thirds by weight). Limit yourself to small helpings. But skimmed-milk (cottage) cheese can be eaten without restriction. Edam, Gouda, Mozzarella, Gruyere and Samsoe are hard or semi-hard cheeses which contain relatively little fat. Eat blue cheeses and Camembert less frequently; they are high in fat content. Cottage-cheese salad is a nutritious, protein-rich dish; consider having it at least once a week in place of a meat dish. Yoghurts and frozen yoghurts made from skimmed milk are low in fat. Use them freely. Yoghurt is a valuable replacement for cream in many recipes. Hence it is possible to continue to use many milk products freely, and there are good nutritional reasons for doing so.
Soft margarines are now available which contain far less saturated fat than butter and are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids: particularly they contain the essential food substance, linoleic acid; this provides 50 per cent or more of the fat. Compare this with the content in hard margarine (about 10 per cent) and in butter (about 2 per cent). Unlike butter, soft margarines contain almost no cholesterol. Use a soft margarine in place of butter and hard margarines for spreading (thinly) and in cooking. Soft margarines are also suitable for baking. Choose a margarine which is made from corn oil, sunflower oil or safflower oil, and which contains a high percentage of linoleic acid. But avoid margarines which are described as ‘hydrogenated’. This hardening process reduces the amount of linoleic acid and increases the cholesterol-raising fatty acids. Read the label before you buy.
*18/202/5*

Ansaid (Flurbiprofen)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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SPINAL CORD INJURY: PHYSICAL, RESPIRATORY, AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIES
Physical therapists, respiratory therapists, and occupational therapists all help the patient intensively during the early days of hospitalization. Every patient with a spinal cord injury will work with a physical therapist. Physical therapy involves the use of physical exercises and techniques such as massage or the application of heat or ice. The physical therapist has the major responsibility for maintaining your strength and flexibility and for teaching you mobility skills. The therapist will test each body part to determine muscle function and strength, before initiating an individualized exercise program.
As you begin physical therapy, you’ll encounter different terms for the various exercises. Ranges of motion exercises are the bedrock of the therapy, and these begin immediately. Range of motion refers to the degree of flexibility of a joint and is quantified by measuring (in degrees) the joint’s limits of motion in each direction. Various exercises are used to maintain or improve range of motion. If you cannot move your own limb and the therapist does it for you, it is called passive range of motion exercise. In active range of motion exercises, you control your own movement. There are also active resistance exercises in which you move against a force with your own energy. In active assisted exercise, the therapist helps you move weakened muscles. Range of motion exercises will become part of your daily routine for the rest of your life. They prevent contracture, a condition in which soft tissues around joints shorten, stiffen, and lose flexibility, leading to a loss of joint motion.
Physical therapists also teach you or your family the proper positioning of your body and proper movement so that pressure sores or decubitus ulcers do not develop (these and other complications of spinal cord injury are discussed below). After a few days in the hospital, you’ll probably begin to sit up, and your physical therapist will be there to help with positioning.
If necessary, respiratory therapy is initiated early in your hospitalization. This therapy involves the use of machinery and the therapist’s hands to help you breathe and cough. If you are using a ventilator, respiratory therapy is essential to monitor proper use of the ventilator equipment and management of the tracheostomy. If you do not need a ventilator but your injury is above T12, you may need respiratory therapy to help keep your lungs clear of fluid, because the muscles for coughing are weakened. This therapy includes inhaling medications to help expand the small airway passages in the lungs, along with breathing exercises and techniques to help keep your lungs clear.
Occupational therapy focuses on use of the upper body, arms, and hands for self-care activities such as feeding, bathing, and dressing, and for functional activities such as writing, balancing a checkbook, and cooking. The occupational therapist may begin work on self-care activities, also called activities of daily living, in the acute phase of your treatment, but you will work more intensively with occupational therapists in the rehabilitation hospital.
*12/156/5*

Zometa (Zoledronic Acid)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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SPINAL CORD INJURY: EMERGENCY ROOM AND EARLY DAYS OF HOSPITALIZATION
Whether caused by a gunshot, a fall from a balcony, a car or motorcycle accident, or a dive into a shallow pool of water a spinal cord injury requires immediate emergency medical assistance. Care must be taken at the scene of the accident to preserve the integrity of the spinal cord. This means that the injured person should be moved only by a professional who is trained in the proper protocol. Stabilizing the neck and transferring the patient onto a backboard – a flat board or stretcher-are usually the first steps taken by the emergency medical technicians. The backboard is placed securely into an emergency vehicle, and a swift journey to a trauma center or hospital follows. Sometimes helicopters do the transporting. On reaching the hospital, the injured person is rapidly transferred to the Emergency Room (ER). Time is of the essence.
Franklin remembers bits and pieces of his trip to the hospital, emergency treatment efforts, and the fears and feelings swirling through his mind. At this point, injured people often have an awareness of their surroundings but no real understanding of what has actually happened. You may be thinking, “What’s going on? What’s wrong with me? Where’s my family?” Questions may float through your mind but you maybe too stunned to ask. Events seem beyond you. You feel as if you’ve been transported into someone else’s life. There is pain. There is no pain. Your headache is like no other you’ve experienced. Time whizzes by. Time is in slow motion.
If you remember the trip to the hospital, you may recall the board on which you arrived and the doctors and nurses examining you. You may remember chaos in the ER, and the sudden appearance of family members and how they reacted, whether with tears or with stiff upper lips. After a quick visit, your family was probably escorted to the waiting room, and you were on your own again with medical staff.
*4/156/5*

Alfacip (Alphadol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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WHAT IS SPINAL CORD INJURY?
Early in the hospital stay, doctors examine the injured person’s neurological functions to determine the severity of the spinal cord injury. They determine the level at which the spinal cord is injured, whether the injury is complete or incomplete, and whether there is any injury to the bones and ligaments that protect the spinal cord.
What makes up this complex part of our body, the spinal cord? Composed of a delicate bundle of nerve fibers, it connects the brain to the rest of the body. It is surrounded by a long, tubular structure of bones, cartilage, and ligaments called the vertebral column. (The vertebral column is also known as the spine. It is important to understand that the spine is a bony structure surrounding the spinal cord.) The vertebral column consists of a series of small bones called vertebrae, which form a column extending from the lower back to the base of the skull. The vertebrae are cushioned and separated by small gelatinous blocks of cartilage called intervertebral disks.
The vertebrae are named by region of the body, with seven cervical (C) vertebrae in the neck, twelve thoracic (T) vertebrae in the upper back, five lumbar (L) vertebrae in the lower back, and a fused block of vertebrae, called the sacrum (S), at the base of the spine. The vertebrae are also numbered from top to bottom within each of these regions: the lowest cervical (neck) vertebra, C7, sits atop the highest thoracic (upper back) vertebra, T1.
Most people with a spinal cord injury also have an injury of the vertebral column, such as a fracture or dislocation of a vertebra. A spinal fracture is a broken vertebra, and a dislocation of the spine is movement of one vertebra out of its normal alignment. When any vertebrae are fractured or dislocated, there is a high risk of spinal cord injury. Ligaments hold the bones together. If ligaments are destroyed, bones can move out of proper alignment and compress the spinal cord. The forces often involved in serious accidents—car accidents, for example—can tear or stretch vital ligaments. Some people need bracing until ligaments heal; others require surgery. Ensuring the stability of the vertebral column is essential in the care of individuals with spinal cord injury.
The spinal cord, like the vertebral column, has segments from cervical to sacral. Two pairs of nerve roots (bundles of nerve fibers) connect with the spinal cord at every level. Each pair of nerve roots consists of a sensory (or dorsal) root and a motor (or ventral) root, which join to form a mixed spinal nerve. These spinal nerves pass through the vertebral column between the vertebrae, carrying sensory information from and motor information to the arms, legs, and trunk.
When we are born, the spinal cord is the same length as the vertebral column, so the L4 level of the spinal cord lies next to the L4 vertebra, for example. During childhood, the skeleton grows tremendously, but the spinal cord grows only a little longer. By the time we reach adulthood, the spinal cord is much shorter than the vertebral column. Because the top of the spinal cord is still attached to the brain, the CI level of the spinal cord lies next to the CI vertebra. But the S3 level of the spinal cord is near the LI vertebra, only about two-thirds of the way down the back. This means that the level of a vertebral injury may be quite different from the level of the spinal cord injury it causes. For example, when the TIO (middle back) vertebra is fractured, it may result in L3 (lower back) spinal cord injury. Injuries of the lower lumbar and sacral parts of the vertebral column are below the bottom of the spinal cord, because the cord extends only to about LI. Thus lower injuries may cause damage to the nerve roots in the lower back (called the cauda equina) but do not affect the spinal cord itself.
*5/156/5*

Relafen (Nabumetone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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WEIGHT CONTROL: WHAT TO PUT ON THE TABLE
All the fat and cholesterol of eggs is present in the yolk, while the white contains high-quality, relatively cheap protein. Most recommended diets suggest limiting intake of whole eggs to three per week. You need not restrict your intake of egg white. Make omelettes and scrambled eggs for the family with three whole eggs and three extra whites. In baking you can reduce the number of yolks in many recipes, especially if the dough is well aerated. Replace each egg with two egg whites. In some countries, e.g. the U.S.A., egg substitutes containing almost no cholesterol are widely marketed. These contain egg white with vegetable oils.
Almost all vegetables, fruits and cereal products can be eaten without restriction. Vegetables provide many of the important items in a balanced diet – starch (as in potatoes), fibre, vitamin A (derived from green and yellow vegetables) and vitamin C. Vegetables contain varying amounts of protein; peas, lentils and beans, and especially soybean products, are useful protein foods. Leaf vegetables also give us a little polyunsaturated fat. Fruit is an important part of your prudent diet: oranges and grapefruit are rich sources of vitamin С and you should eat one or other each day, or use the juice. The whole fruit has the advantage of containing far more fibre (roughage) than the juice.
Lettuce, cabbage and broccoli have the additional value in a reducing diet that they provide very little food energy; the Calorie content is negligible. This is also true of tomatoes and carrots.
Grapefruit is a low-Calorie fruit, taken fresh or (for variety) baked and served hot.
Avocados contain a moderate amount of fat, chiefly of the neutral ‘mono’ variety. There is little saturated fat.
Most kinds of bread can be eaten freely (exceptions are egg and milk breads). There are only minor differences between white bread and most brown breads. But whole-meal bread is a good source of vegetable fibre. Matzos and crisp bread also contain very little fat. Muffins, too, are low in fat.
Other baked foods can contain a surprising amount of fat, up to 30 per cent in some kinds of biscuit. This fat is rich in saturated fatty acids in most commercially produced biscuits, cakes and pastries, especially when cream or coconut fat is used in dairy or non-dairy fillings and toppings. So bake these foods at home.
*19/202/5*

Calcium Carbonate (Calcium Carbonate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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SPINAL CORD INJURY: MANAGING THE REACTIONS OF OTHERS
Differentiating your own fears about how you look from the actual reactions of other people can be quite confusing. Try comparing how you viewed people with disabilities before your injury and how you now feel about yourself. Think about how you react to fellow patients whose injuries are comparable to, or worse than, your own.
Ask yourself a few questions. What frightens you or “turns you off”? This may help you to understand the reactions of others and not take their responses so personally. What makes a person seem attractive or approachable? You might try modeling these positive aspects of self-presentation. What makes you feel good about your own appearance? Although you may need to wear casual clothing for physical therapy, you can still dress up for visiting hours. Developing strategies to help others see beyond the disability to the “real you” also helps you see yourself as a whole person, not a collection of physical flaws.
One way of gaining a greater sense of control over social situations is to anticipate reactions to your different appearance by commenting on it or even drawing attention to it. You can use humor – making a joke about yourself – or simply comment on the facts of your situation (“You can see I need crutches now. It’s because my spinal cord was damaged and my legs are weak”).
You can also put your own creative stamp on your crutches or wheelchair. This can elicit a positive response from others and help them focus on your choice of embellishments – that is, on an aspect of your personality – rather than on your impairment or “sickness.” Many wheelchairs and crutches are now available in a variety of colors, and you may be able to make a choice about this when you go home. Wheelchair backpacks, tote bags for walkers, and related items can also be used to individualize your equipment.
Finally, you can put your friend or family member at ease by preempting negative comments. By saying something like “I really hate this brace. It’s the ugliest thing I’ve ever seen. I wish I didn’t need it, but I guess I’ll have to get used to it,” you are giving the other person permission to think that the brace is ugly and thus to feel less guilty or awkward. At the same time, this also focuses the negative perception on the brace and away from you. The brace may indeed be ugly, but you are not!
*44/156/5*