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Archive for the ‘General Health’ Category

Ophthacare

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: RECOGNIZING ASTHMA ATTACK
While the theory of asthma is easy to understand, it is equally important to be able to recognize an attack in practice, so treatment can be commenced rapidly. No doubt some people will be well aware of how it affects their child, but others may not be so certain. Asthma can present in two different ways: as a chronic low-grade shortness of breath; or as a severe breathlessness of much faster onset. These are well illustrated by two patients of mine, Richard and Simon. Richard’s mother had become increasingly worried about her 12 year-old son as he kept arriving home from school in a miserable state. He had always enjoyed playing football but recently had lost all enthusiasm for it. To make matters worse at a parents meeting she was told that Richard was falling behind with his schoolwork. He denied that anything was wrong and on several occasions had been angry with his mother for keeping on at him about it. She decided that it was probably a phase he was going through, although lately he did seem to be coughing more than usual at night. Richard had tended to be ‘chesty’ when he was younger, and had often been given antibiotics by his GP. Matters came to a head one day when Richard was asked to rush to the post office to send off an urgent letter. He arrived home, very short of breath saying that he had just missed the post, at which his father became very annoyed because of the importance of the letter. Richard was very upset and over the next hour he became increasingly short of breath and distressed. His parents were worried when his breathing became noisy and he started to wheeze, so they called me out to visit.
Richard’s main symptoms were a persistent cough, wheezing and a fall-off of performance, all of which are very typical of chronic asthma. Happily after examining him I was able to instigate the appropriate treatment using an inhaler and his breathing difficulty quickly settled.
I have found with my own three children that a troublesome cough is a warning that an asthma attack is threatened, and a sign temporarily to increase their medication. However, I am often asked by parents whether there is a single symptom which will confirm that their child has asthma – that sign is undoubtedly ‘wheezing’.
In asthma there is more difficulty breathing out than breathing in. This is mainly because during inhalation there is a pull on the airways which tends to widen them. During expiration the reverse is true and the airways become relatively narrower. The child, therefore, in an attempt to breathe out sufficiently has to try and expel the air through the narrowed tubes. This produces the characteristic whistling sound known as a wheeze. In listening to Richard’s breathing it was easy to see that inhaling was quite comfortable but each exhalation was prolonged, required much more effort, and was accompanied by the typical wheeze. This one feature is itself virtually diagnostic of asthma.
Richard’s attacks were low-grade ones which built up over a period of several weeks. Simon, however – in similar fashion to Julie – developed a much more sudden and savage attack during a freezing winter night. He had suffered from a common cold for the previous three days but this was not unusual as his mother commented that he always picked infections up very easily. He was now 10 years old and this was the first time he had been in such distress. When I arrived, to a very worried household, Simon was sat up in a chair and looked extremely ill. The dominant feature was the violent wheezing with severe shortness of breath. He was pale and his facial expression was anxious with beads of sweat on his brow. He was cold to the touch, with a clammy skin. His heartbeat was very fast and increased every time he tried to force a breath in. The soft tissues around his neck and the muscles between his ribs were sucked in every time he inhaled. Simon was sitting forward with his elbows on his knees gasping for breath. Speech was almost nonexistent save for short phrases, and he was extremely restless.
At this stage it is almost impossible to reassure either child or parents and management is aimed solely at relieving the breathing difficulty. Up to a few years ago this would have meant admission to hospital, but apart from causing further anxiety, vital minutes would be lost before treatment was started; the wait for an ambulance, even though they come quickly, can seem to last for an eternity and many is the time I have taken an asthmatic child up to hospital in my own car.
Fortunately a great deal of progress has been made in the treatment of these severe attacks, and now, with the use of a machine called a nebulizer, relief can be obtained very rapidly Simon used the nebulizer for ten minutes and it became possible for him to breathe out more freely. He still had a wheeze but it was not so forced. In only a short space of time the tension relaxed and the mood of the whole house was lifted. It took Simon another twenty-four hours to become free of his wheeze, but during this time he was quite happy and was able to move about virtually as normal.
In all three of the cases I have just described the parents were most anxious to know the cause of the attacks and whether they could be prevented.
*13/13/13*

Dihydroergotoxine

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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EXCRETION: KIDNEY
This still leaves large amounts of water and waste materials to be taken away by the kidney. Probably most of you think of the kidney as the sewage disposal bed of the body. It is that, giving off impure water daily in amounts anywhere from several pints normally to many quarts in certain diseases. It is so much more, however, that an eminent scientist friend of mine starts his discussion of it with “a word of praise for that admirable organ, the kidney.”
It is carefully placed in a well-protected position up against the heavy muscles about the spine, overhung by the lower ribs, and with the “innards,” or viscera, in front. Therefore, it is not often accidentally injured, as are the spleen, intestines, and bladder. Short of being struck by a bullet, it is rarely seriously enough injured to require removal.
This talk so far has been about “the” kidney, for although it is unusual not to have two, a description of one will fit them both. As a matter of fact, there are really about two million. Inside the tough capsule of the kidney are enormous numbers of “nephrons,” which is just Greek for kidneys. Each one of these is complete in itself, doing its full share of the work.
Over a century ago, Sir William Bowman, using a microscope and a needle, dissected one of these nephrons. Each begins with a glomerulus. This is a minute coil of blood vessels, surrounded by a sack called Bowman’s capsule. So Bowman’s name goes ringing down the halls of fame with Alexander the Great, Napoleon, and Hitler. Unfortunately, the high pitch of men like him is rarely perceived by human ears.
At these glomeruli, fluid and waste products are filtered out from the blood, and flow from Bowman’s capsule into a fine tube remarkably twisted and coiled like our intestines. Finally the contents of these millions of tubes are passed as urine.
All these tubes discharge into a sac called the pelvis of the kidney which is on the inner side towards the spine. There is no way of describing the shape of the kidney except by saying that it is kidney shaped, or like a kidney bean. Certainly there are numerous ponds here and there in the country called Kidney Ponds because of their shape. Everybody knows where the kidneys are located as shown by the “kidney blows” of pugilists and the success of patent medicine dealers in selling kidney pills to people with lame backs. Sick kidneys may cause many symptoms, but back pains are the least important of these.
Usually the kidney cannot be felt by the examiner except on the right side of a thin woman. This kidney always lies lower because of the big liver and sometimes it moves around so freely that it is called a “floating kidney.” We used to stitch it up in place but I think that is rarely done now. If the patient accumulates some fat, that will usually keep it where it belongs. The blood supply of the kidney is profuse, for the blood has to be worked over thoroughly and frequently for the removal of impurities. The renal artery is a short large vessel leading from the aorta right to the kidney; therefore, there is little obstruction to the passage of the arterial blood to it and, hence, the blood pressure remains high there. About a quart of blood goes to the kidney every minute.
Practically all of the blood goes to the little glomeruli. I believe that it is generally accepted now that the glomerulus acts as a filter and extracts from the blood water and other products and does not take out the protein of the blood. There are a number of ingredients in the blood that have to be delicately adjusted, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphates, etc. All this is an intricate, important, chemical balance, which the kidneys maintain by reabsorbing through the walls of their little tubes just the right amount of these materials to serve the body’s needs, and discard the rest along with the harmful waste products.
You do not need to be told that certain things increase the flow of urine – chief among these is the drinking of large quantities of water. Caffeine and alcohol also are diuretics. (A diuretic is our medical term for a substance which increases the flow of urine.) It is notorious that beer drinking causes increased urination due to the intake of great bulk of water combined with the effect of alcohol.
*30/276/5*

Vitamin B-12

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: COLON, LIVER, GALLBLADDER AND PANCREAS
Large intestine or Colon
It takes twelve to fourteen hours for contents to make the circuit of the large intestine. Any material leaving the ileum and entering the cecum [where the small and large intestines join] is quite watery. Backflow is prevented at this junction by a muscular valve.
Very little is absorbed from the large intestine except water.
The colon is primarily a storage and dehydrating organ. Substances entering in a liquid state become semi-solid as water is absorbed.
The colon, in contrast to the germ-free stomach, is lavishly populated with bacteria, normal intestinal flora. A large part of the faeces is composed of bacteria, along with indigestible material, chiefly cellulose, and substances eliminated from the blood and shed from the intestinal walls.
Liver
The main storage organ for fat-soluble vitamins. The liver is the largest solid organ of the body and weighs about four pounds. It is an incomparable chemical plant. It can modify almost any chemical structure. It is a powerful detoxifying organ, breaking down a variety of toxic molecules and rendering them harmless. It is also a blood reservoir and a storage organ for vitamins such as A and D and for digested carbohydrate [glycogen], which is released to sustain blood sugar levels. It manufactures enzymes, cholesterol, proteins, vitamin A [from carotene], and blood coagulation factors.
One of the prime functions of the liver is to produce bile. Bile contains salts that promote efficient digestion of fats by detergent action, emulsifying fatty materials.
Gallbladder
Even the sight of food may empty the gallbladder.
This is a sack-like storage organ about three inches long. It holds bile, modifies it chemically, and concentrates it tenfold. The taste or sometimes even the sight of food may be sufficient to empty it out. Constituents of gallbladder fluids sometimes crystallize and form gallstones.
Pancreas
The pancreas provides the body’s most important enzymes. This gland is about six inches long, and is nestled into the curve of the duodenum. Its cell clusters secrete insulin, which accelerates the burning of sugar in the body. Insulin is secreted into the blood, not the digestive tract. The larger part of the pancreas manufactures and secretes pancreatic juice, which contains some of the body’s most important digestive enzymes – lipases, which split fats; proteases, which split protein; and amylases, which split starches.
*6/134/5*

Antabuse (Disulfiram)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Antabuse(Disulfiram)
HEALING HERBS: GRINDELIA, GUAIACUM, HAWTHORN AND HOPS
Grindelia
Grindelia camporum
Description: A biennial, perennial or small shrub with round yellow stems, smooth alternate leaves at the base, and the flower heads. It is native to North and South America. The leaves and flower heads are used.
Uses: Works as an expectorant and mild sedative for relief °f respiratory tract infections and asthma. Also to treat catarrh of the urinary tract and bladder.
Guaiacum
Guaiacum officinale
Description: An evergreen tree with purplish-blue flowers, from the West Indies, which grows to 20 meters. A resin is extracted from the bark and timber.
Uses: To relieve the pain of rheumatism, gout and arthritis, it also works as an antiseptic and diuretic.
Hawthorn
Crataegus monogyna
Description: A small deciduous tree which grows in cold climates in Australia, for example New England and the ACT. It has small white flowers in spring and red berries in autumn and is covered in thorns. The dried fruit is used.
Uses: It is specifically used to treat the muscular action of the heart in conditions such as irregular heartbeat, palpitations, angina, arteriosclerosis, circulatory disorders, and blood pressure.
Hops
Humulus lupulus
Description: Native to Britain, hops are related to stinging nettles, have a twining stem which is prickly, and heart-shaped leaves which are opposite. Male and female flowers are on separate plants and the female produces the fruit, or cone, that is used commercially. In a plantation of hops, such as Tasmania, only a few males will be found, for fertilization purposes.
Uses: As a soporific to treat insomnia, anxiety, indigestion, and also for the relief of menstrual pain and neuralgia. It is drunk as a tea in Britain to induce sleep and calm the nerves.
*13/199/5*

Vitamin B-6

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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MAN: ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT
Scientists are agreed that animal life began in the simplest of forms and slowly through the ages changed and increased in complexity. Single-cell animals increased in number by merely dividing, each in two, every resulting cell having all the attributes that the parent cell had. In the biological laboratory one can see the amoeba doing this.
As more elaborate animals evolved, consisting of many cells, certain cells began to take on special functions, and gradually organs evolved to perform these functions more efficiently. Of course the most important function of all was reproduction, without which the race would cease to exist. Ultimately the two sexes were established and this duality is to be found in all but the very lowest forms of life. At a slightly advanced stage both male and female forms may be found in one individual, but development never continues far in- this line. Individuals in all higher stages are distinctively either male or female.
The history of the development of a race is called phylogeny; that of an individual, ontogeny. These are big Greek words but their meaning is simple enough. When we use the mouth-filling phrase, “Ontogeny is the recapitulation of phylogeny,” and apply it to humans, we are simply saying that any individual, as he or she grows in the womb, goes through the stages that the ancestors from the beginning of life in the world have passed through.
*1/276/5*

Primaquine

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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UNDERSTANDING YOUR DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Mouth and Oesophagus
Digestion begins in the mouth with the grinding of food and admixture of saliva. An enzyme called ptyalin in the saliva already begins to split starches into simple sugars. The food is then forced to the back of the mouth and into the oesophagus, or gullet. Here is where peristalsis begins. This is a kneading “milking” constriction and relaxation of muscles that propels material through the digestive system. To prevent back-flow of materials and to time the release of proper enzymes – since one enzyme cannot do another enzyme’s work – the digestive tract is equipped with valves at important junctions.
Stomach
This is the biggest bulge in the digestive tract, as most of us are well aware. But it is located higher than you might think, lying mainly behind the lower ribs, not under the navel, and it does not occupy the belly. It is a flexible bag enclosed by restless muscles, constantly changing form. Virtually nothing is absorbed through the stomach walls except alcohol.
An ordinary meal leaves the stomach in three to five hours. Watery substances, such as soup, leave the stomach quite rapidly. Fats remain considerably longer. An ordinary meal of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is emptied from the average stomach in three to five hours. Stomach glands and specialized cells produce mucuous, enzymes, hydrochloric acid, and a factor that enables vitamin B12 to be dissolved through intestinal walls into the circulation. A normal stomach is definitely on the acid side, and gastric juice, the stomach’s special blend, consists of many substances:
Pepsin The predominant stomach enzyme, a potent digester of meats and other proteins, it is active only in an acid medium.
Renin Curdles milk.
HCl [Hydrochloric acid] Produced by stomach cells and creates an acidic state.
The stomach is not absolutely indispensable to digestion. Most of the process of digestion occurs beyond it.
Small Intestine Virtually all absorption of nutrients occurs in the small intestine. Twenty-two feet long, here is where digestion is completed and virtually all absorption of nutrients occurs. It has an alkaline environment, brought about by highly alkaline bile, pancreatic juice, and secretions of the intestinal walls. The alkaline environment is necessary for the most important work of digestion and absorption. The duodenum, which begins at the stomach outlet, is the first part of the small intestine. This joins with the jejunum [about ten feet long], which joins with the ileum [ten to twelve feet long]. When semi-liquid contents of the small intestine are moved along by peristaltic action, we often say we hear our stomach “talking”. Actually our stomach lies above these rumblings [called borborygmi], but even with the truth known it’s doubtful the phrase will change.
*5/134/5*

Melatonin

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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KIDNEYS TREATMENT: TOOLS OF THE GENITO-URINARY SPECIALIST
We doctors are frequently reminded that the patient’s primary interest is to get a treatment to make him well. We feel that it is not necessary, as formerly it was thought to be, to stress the point that the prospect of such a happy result is increased if our treatment can be intelligently and accurately applied. Hence diagnosis is of primary importance. Right now would seem to be an opportune moment to speak of this, for possibly no branch of medicine has advanced more in diagnostic skill than the genito-urinary specialty. Before the present century our procedures were largely empirical. This is a striking example of a good word gone wrong. It means founded on experience. The trouble was that experience was largely similar to that of the elderly matron who felt competent to advise a young mother because she had had a dozen children of her own — ten of whom had died young.
Now blood examinations may show whether poisonous substances are accumulating in the blood when they should have been removed by the kidneys. A dye can be injected into the blood, and the amount found in the urine can be measured to test the function of the kidneys. The urologist passes an instrument into the bladder and from this threads catheters, that is, flexible tubes, into the ureters. Thus he tries out each kidney separately. Then he injects into these catheters a fluid which will show by X-ray. In this way he outlines the hollow portions of the kidneys and the ureters running down from them.
But all this use of instruments may have too many disadvantages for a sick patient. In this case a fluid may be injected into the blood and X-rays will then determine if the kidneys are excreting it. This method again tells of the function of each kidney and the presence of abnormalities. And X-rays may also tell of the presence of stones. These are a few hints of the accuracy with which the excretory system may now be studied.
*37/276/5*

Reminyl (Galantamine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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HOW TO SURVIVE YOUR DOCTOR: ABORTION, ABSCESS
Abortion
Each year in Australia doctors extract seventy thousand “products of conception” from their mothers’ uteruses by a device known as the vacuum curette. The killing of a foetus in this way is not considered a crime if the birth of a child will adversely affect the physical or mental health of its mother.
Infanticide, Morning After Pill, RU486, Septic Abortion, Threatened Abortion.
Home Remedies
Don’t even think about it. Present to a fertility clinic. Have a termination of pregnancy under the control of a qualified medical practitioner. Next time unprotected intercourse raises the specter of an unwanted pregnancy take the Morning After Pill. Taken within 72 hours of conception the Morning After Pill prevents pregnancy 90 per cent of the time. Try to avoid the whole issue. Go on the oral contraceptive pill at your earliest opportunity.
Abscess
An abscess is a collection of pus surrounded by and including a bacterial infection. Pus producing micro organism called Staphylococcus Aureous are the cause of most abscesses. Boils and carbuncles are formed when rapidly reproducing Staphylococci take over a hair follicle. Even today the best treatment for a boil consists of incision and drainage. When a red, swollen, painful mass of suppuration, collects and comes to a head, this is the time to lance a boil.
Antiseptics, Drug Resistance, M.R.S.A., Staphylococcus Aureous.
Home Remedies
So called drawing ointments don’t work. Some authorities still recommend a hot poultice and elevation of the affected limb before incision and drainage. Incision with a sharp needle or a razor blade soaked in antiseptic is a simple and gratifying procedure. Prevention involves the eradication of Staphylococcus from the skin. Twenty minutes each day in the bath with a dilute antiseptic solution achieves this goal within two to three weeks. People who prefer to shower can use Physohex or Chlorhexidine solution instead of soap.
*1/131/5*

Colace (Docusate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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LAROSCOPIC VIDEO METHOD IN SURGERIES
The list of surgeries that have switched over to the laparoscopic video method grows daily. It includes these:
• Lungs. Until now, the removal of a section of lung or the taking of a sample of tissue from the lung for microscopic examination meant a patient had to spend at least a week in the hospital plus a month or more recovering. The surgeon performed a thoracotomy, opening a window into the chest. To do that, the physician and his assistants cut a giant opening across the patient’s back and chest. With special clamps, they spread apart the adjoining ribs and, if necessary, broke them. The resultant postoperative pain often swamped the patient.
Dr. Ralph Lewis heads the thoracic surgery department at the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and St. Peter’s Medical Center in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Last September, Dr. Lewis performed video surgeries for a biopsy of a diseased lung and for the removal of a lobe of a cancerous lung.
“It’s like looking for a penny under a subway grating,” Dr. Lewis says of video surgery. “You stick your instruments and TV camera between the ribs, using the TV image to guide them. There is no need to break the ribs.” He points out that, with this method, a surgeon can remove an accumulation of fluid from the chest or from around the heart of a patient. “I’ve had calls from heart surgeons who are interested in this procedure,” Dr. Lewis adds.
• Prostate gland. The video laparoscope has been used in the removal of cancerous prostate glands. Again, this procedure saves the patient pain and recovery time, both while in the hospital and while convalescing at home.
Dr. R. Ernest Sosa, an urologist at New York Hospital in Manhattan, has used video surgery to battle prostate cancer. He removes the lymph nodes that drain the prostate gland. Those nodes move fluid around the body outside the bloodstream. If a cancer has spread, the lymph nodes are the first to get the deadly cells. With the nodes out, the microscope reveals whether they are cancerous.
“If the nodes are clean,” Dr. Sosa says, “and the biopsy of the prostate shows cancer, we go in and cut out the organ or treat it with radiation, and the patient has an excellent future.” He adds, however, “If the lymph nodes are cancerous, treating the prostate itself is insufficient.” In that case, Dr. Sosa says, “We do not operate or radiate – we treat the patient with medication.”
The medication stops the production of the hormone testosterone, on which four out of five prostate cancers depend for growth. Although this treatment slows the disease and improves the patient’s quality of life, it unfortunately is not a cure.
• Colon, pancreas, liver. Dr. Cooper-man and other surgeons already have used the video technique to remove sections of diseased large bowels from patients. There is one report of 20 total colon removals with no deaths. Patients are able to go home in 3 to 5 days, instead of the usual 10 days. Dr. Cooperman, well known for his skill in pancreatic surgery, also has taken liver samples using video surgery. And Dr. Reich of Philadelphia has used the video method to repair injured bowels and urinary bladders.
*30/266/5*

Betoptic (Betaxolol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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WHAT VITAMINS ARE
We must obtain vitamins from organic foods, or dietary supplements in order to sustain life. When the word “vitamin” is mentioned, most people think “pill”. Thinking “pill” brings to mind confusing images of medicine and drugs. Though vitamins can and certainly often do the work of both medicine and drugs, they are neither.
Quite simply, vitamins are organic substances necessary for life. Vitamins are essential to the normal functioning of our bodies and, save for a few exceptions, cannot be manufactured or synthesized by our bodies. They are necessary for our growth, vitality, and general well-being. In their natural state they are found in minute quantities in all organic food. We must obtain them from these foods or in dietary supplements.
Supplements, which usually come in pill form and around which so much controversy has arisen, are still just food substances, and, unless synthetic, are also derived from living plants and animals.
It is impossible to sustain life without all the essential vitamins.
*1/134/5*

Mestinon (Pyridostigmine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Mestinon(Pyridostigmine)
NUTRIENTS FOR YOUR BODY: CABBOHYDRATES
All people of the world depend upon carbohydrate-rich foods as the principal source of-calories. In the United States carbohydrates furnish less-than half of the calories, whereas in some countries of the world as much as four fifths of the calories are obtained from carbohydrate. The carbohydrate-rich plants are easily grown, give a large yield of food per acre, keep rather well, and are less expensive than foods of animal origin. The foods are highly acceptable in a great variety of ways and are easily digested and used in the body.
Nature and classification
By a complex process known as photosynthesis all green plants use energy from the sun, water from the soil, and carbon dioxide from the air to make carbohydrate. All carbohydrates contain the chemical elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same proportions as found in water.
The single and double sugars are often referred to as “simple” carbohydrates, while the polysaccharides including starches and dietary fibers arc designated as “complex” carbohydrates.
Properties
Carbohydrates may be ranked in decreasing order of sweetness: fructose, sucrose, glucose, lactose, dextrin, and starch. Regardless of their sweetness, all carbohydrates furnish 4 kcal per gram. Only a small amount of honey, which is rich in fructose, can be eaten at one time. If one needs to increase the caloric value of a glass of lemonade, for example, he could use about twice as much glucose as sucrose. Lactose is only about one seventh as sweet as sucrose. Sugars vary greatly in their solubility. Glucose is less soluble than sucrose; when making up a beverage it should be stirred well so that the sugar will not settle to the bottom. Lactose is now seldom used in beverages because of its poor solubility, its higher cost, and its tendency to irritate the intestinal tract when taken in large amounts.
Starches are bland in flavor and not sweet. A green banana is high in starch; as it ripens, the starch is changed to glucose and the sweetness is thereby increased. When corn ripens, it becomes less sweet as the sugars are converted to starch.
The thickening property of starch is well known, as in the making of cornstarch pudding or the cooking of a breakfast cereal such as oatmeal. When mixed with water and cooked, the starch absorbs water, and the mixture thickens.
*31/234/5*

Acai

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY
Growing animals who are totally deprived of all essential fatty acids show a wide range of unpleasant symptoms. These are the main ones:
• The hair falls out and eczema-like lesions develop. The sebaceous glands hypertrophy.
• Wounds fail to heal normally, apparently due to a failure of connective tissue formation.
• Normal growth fails to occur.
• All body membranes become exceptionally permeable. In particular the skin loses its ability to prevent passage of water. Large amounts of water are lost across the skin, the animal is thirsty, but the urine is concentrated.
• Reproduction fails, especially in males. Females may become pregnant but frequently miscarry and rarely carry a litter to term.
• The kidneys hypertrophy and are prone to hemorrhage, and renal failure develops.
• The liver undergoes fatty degeneration.
• The tear and saliva glands atrophy and so does the pancreas.
• The immune system is defective and there is great susceptibility to infections.
The earliest results of such experiments were obtained as long ago as 1929. Of course, there have been no such deliberate experiments on humans. However, when baby milk formulas were first being developed, they left out EFAs and the babies’ skin became dry, scaly and eczema-like. A similar thing happened when hospital patients were first fed totally by intravenous drip solutions. The drip solutions left out EFAs, and the patients developed skin rashes resembling eczema or
psoriasis. In both cases, the symptoms cleared up once EEAs were given.
Although there have been no long-term studies on EFA deficiency states in humans, one way to test for such deficiency is to see what happens to symptoms when supplemental amounts of EFAs are given.
*2/60/5*

Arcalion (Sulbutiamine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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BAD BREATH OR HALITOSIS
The cause of bad breath has to be found before it can be treated. Causes range from poor oral hygiene, constipation, to sinusitis and bronchitis. When either mucous or pus builds up in the airways, it creates a foul smell. The most common causes of bad breath are poor oral hygiene and digestion.
If the source is the mouth then it is most likely to be the teeth. Proper brushing and flossing of the teeth will remove rotting food matter that becomes lodged. This rotting food not only can cause bad breath but also tooth decay.
Children are often unaware of the necessity for correct brushing technique and need to be trained and supervised, using dental floss and brushing. Plaque which builds up on the teeth houses bacteria that can also cause bad breath and increase tooth decay.
Herbs can help. If the problem is caused by the digestive system, the breath becomes worse when the stomach is empty. Supplement the diet with acidophilus and bifidus or eat acidophilus yoghurt which will help the growth of healthy friendly bacteria and balance gut flora.
A little chlorophyll or peppermint tea will also help freshen the breath and improve digestion. It is very important to drink plenty of fresh water daily. This will also aid digestion, help flush toxins from the body and promote good health. Charcoal tablets can help, as can Digestive Bitters if indigestion is the cause.
Bad breath may be the result of other problems including infected tonsils, adenoids, sinus congestion or bronchitis.
Supplements
Acidophilus and bifidus 1 tablet just before meals
Each night chlorophyll as directed on the bottle
*3/199/5*

Dulcolax (Bisacodyl)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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WORLD WITHOUT DISEASE: WIPING OUT WORLD HUNGER; WATCHDOGS
Wiping Out World Hunger
Scientists also see the possibility of changing the genetic endowment of animals and plants alike, making them more efficient and disease-resistant producers of meat, milk, and grains by transplanting in them the genetic properties of hardier life forms. Only recently has it become possible for genetic engineers to put foreign genes into living animals. For example, researchers at the University Of Pennsylvania School Of Veterinary Medicine successfully transferred a human growth hormone gene into a fertilized mouse egg. After the mouse was born, the human hormone helped it grow to twice the size of a normal mouse!
Agricultural scientists, meanwhile, are hoping to transfer the disease-resistant properties of one plant to another. At the University of California, Irvine, scientists already have developed bacteria that aid plants in resisting frost. Now they are introducing genes into other bacteria that will enable plants to take nitrogen out of the air and fix it in the soil, so that plants can grow without expensive fertilizers.
The Watchdogs
If scientists find the power to change the genetic makeup of plants and animals, the possibility exists of changing the heredity of human beings, of removing or putting genes into fertilized human eggs, and then allowing those eggs to mature into adults with new traits. Ideally, one could imagine changing humans so that they would be less susceptible to disease, more intelligent, stronger, and faster. We would have “humans by design.”
In any case, the brave new world of genetic engineering has arrived. The first products are helping diabetics, slow growers, and cancer patients. The scientists are convinced that much more is to come. The genes are doing good deeds.
*37/266/5*

Phoslo (Calcium Acetate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Phoslo(CalciumAcetate)
HINTS ON HOW TO AVOID SMOKING
- Do everything you can to avoid starting to smoke again after your operation. Just one cigarette can be enough to induce relapse. The shock of your operation can wear off after
- Set targets. Aim not to smoke for a specified period. Then keep extending it.
- Don’t forget to reward yourself when you successfully achieve your targets. Buy something you really want or have an outing you normally couldn’t afford.
- Identify situations which make you feel you want to smoke. Anticipate these situations. Plan how to handle them without becoming so stressed that you crave a cigarette.
- Learn relaxation techniques which will help you cope with difficult situations.
- People may encourage you to smoke. Learn to say no to them. Tell all your friends you have had to stop smoking for health reasons. If you live with someone who smokes, try to get them to stop. Ask them to smoke outside or only in one room in the house. This will help them cut down and make it easier for you.
- Remind yourself of what it would be like to have heart problems again. Imagine your lungs now getting clearer every day. Tell yourself that every cigarette you refuse will help to prolong your life.
- Remember, each time you say no, you get more control over your addiction.
- Record your progress. Put the cost of a packet of cigarettes in a jar each day.
- Join up with another patient or friend who is also trying to quit smoking. Support each other when temptations arise. Encourage persistence and congratulate each other when you achieve your targets.
- Don’t worry if you put on a bit of weight. Smoking is much more dangerous for your heart than being overweight. Kick the smoking habit first and then get rid of the extra weight.
- Try to get regular exercise. People sometimes smoke to avoid fatigue. Get fit. The fitter you are, the less you’ll need cigarettes. Exercise helps to control your weight.
- If you feel the urge to smoke, drink a glass of water or orange juice or chew gum.
- Nicotine patches may be a temporary substitute. Discuss their use with your doctor.
- If you do slip, don’t be discouraged. Relapse is common; resolve to try again!
*2/160/5*

Cellcept (Mycophenolate Mofetil)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cellcept(MycophenolateMofetil)
SMOKING: TIPS HELPING YOU TO STOP
Avoid smokers. Sit on the clean side of the cinema and in the nonsmoking area of train, plane or bus. And when someone offers you a cigarette, remember – it’s you who are in charge of your health.
Set up some replacements for tobacco. This is easier than it sounds. Some smokers turn to chewing sugar-free gum; at home a piece of hard salad vegetable will do as well – a carrot, a sprig of raw cauliflower. You won’t need to do this for long. Even a short walk meets the need for a substitute activity.
And set up some rewards, a small one for achieving forty-eight hours, something more after a week. By the end of two to three weeks you can afford to be more generous with yourself! Buy a tie or a bag, see a show, and take a day’s vacation. You deserve it.
Don’t be too upset if you lapse. Many ex-smokers have only succeeded after a few attempts at quitting. Just start again at the top with planning, commitment to a date, avoidance of trigger situations, use of replacements and rewards.
If you must, cut down your consumption gradually before stopping completely. Pick on one of your trigger situations at a time. For example, start by giving up smoking while traveling. Then give up the after-meals cigarette, and so on. Allow up to one week between each advance, but plan your programme ahead. You should commit yourself firmly to this programme, including the target date for your final dose of tar, nicotine and monoxide. A programme like this should not be too prolonged, however, or your enthusiasm may peter out. Aim to be an ex-smoker in four to six weeks. You will still get help from replacement activities, and you will still be earning your rewards.
You have failed again? There is still hope. Attend an anti-smoking clinic, where a group of people help each others’ motivation. Or see your general practitioner; a doctor will give you some additional support. Very possibly, he is a successful ex-smoker himself. Some doctors will prescribe a small dose of a tranquillizing drug to tide you over the first critical week or two; this will act as a temporary replacement. Or if your smoking is really a consequence of an anxiety state your doctor will recognize this and offer the appropriate treatment.
If you absolutely fail. The fewer cigarettes you smoke, and the less of each one, the better. Learn which times of the day your cigarettes are indispensable. Go on smoking at these critical times, but give up the less necessary ones.
Two last points. It is never too late to quit. Though cigarettes are less important as a cause of heart attack in the elderly, they are still potent sources of other disabilities, especially shortness of breath due to chronic bronchitis.
And remember: non-smoking parents are more likely to have non-smoking children. It may be hard to stop; and it’s easy not to start. So be a non-smoker for the sake of your children’s health. You will be setting a good example to your youngsters and to everyone else.
*5/202/5*

Triphala

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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HOW TO AVOID OR MANAGE STRESS
- Identify your stress situation; when you get caught in one, use it as a cue to relax.
- Think positively-you get what you expect.
- See how you can organize your life. Stop trying to do several things at once. Take jobs in order and plan ahead.
- Work out the priorities. Make a list of goals for the day-tick them off as you do each one.
- Make a list of things that cause you stress-see if you can identify a specific activity which will help you to reduce each particular one.
- Take up some mild exercise. Gentle, repetitive activities such as walking, cycling, swimming or jogging are ideal ways to reduce the tension caused by stress.
- Listen to other people, don’t just talk at them; enjoy the conversation.
- Take a break at lunch, eat more slowly, put your problems to one side. Take a walk.
- Try anxiety management techniques. Some of these such as meditation and yoga will need instruction. Others, such as progressive muscular relaxation, you can practice yourself. Concentrate on each group of muscles in turn, consciously relax the muscles for a minute or so. Start from the head and finish with your toes – repeat 2 or 3 times each day.
*1/160/5*

Betahistine

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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IMMUNE SYSTEM AND INFLAMMATION: T CELLS, В CELLS AND ANTIBODIES
What are T cells?
T cell stands for thymus-derived lymphocyte. There are several varieties of T cells. Some (called the helper T cells) help immune function by telling the В cells to begin producing antibodies to fight off antigens. Suppressor T cells turn off immune function. Killer T cells (also called cytotoxic T cells) directly recognize, attack, and destroy antigens.
What are В cells?
В cells are very specialized lymphocytes that are responsible for a variety of functions. Their major role is that they eventually develop into cells called plasma cells, which make antibodies. The В cells got their names from a gland in chickens, called the bursa of Fabricius, where they were first discovered.
How does the immune system produce antibodies?
While the immune system produces antibodies as a response to antigens, it begins their production shortly before birth. While the antibodies of the fetus are limited in both type and number, there is evidence that they are produced in large amounts.
If a person is exposed to an antigen that is not recognized as self, his or her immune system rejects it as foreign. This process of recognition goes on every second during a person’s life. When an individual becomes infected with any organism an immune response results. After the immune response is made, a permanent memory is created in the immune system. One of the more fascinating things about the immune system is its ability to remember. As far as we currently know, there’s only one other component of the body that can remember things-the brain.
The B cells are responsible for making the antibodies. They can be stimulated to make these proteins either directly by a foreign substance or by the T cells. When the В cells make an antibody in direct response to an antigen, it is called a T-independent response. When the T cells stimulate the В cells to make more antibodies, it is called a T-dependent response.
*3/141/5*

Purim

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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MAN IN THE MAKING: GROWTH OF EMBRYO
Soon after the cell and sperm have united, the cell divides into two. The process of dividing continues, each time doubling the number, and by the time that Drs. Rock and Hertig found their specimen, there was quite a mass of cells. At first there is a single layer of cells. This soon begins to infold, forming two layers, and then there is another infolding of the inner layer. Long chapters of books on embryology are devoted to describing the details of this process. It is sufficient for you to know that these three layers are called ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm – outer, inner, and middle layers. Infolding and twisting continue and soon definite shapes are evident.
From the ectoderm are formed the skin, hair, nails, the lining of the mouth and rectum, the nervous system and sense organs, such as the eyes and ears, or parts of them at any rate. The endoderm gives us the lining of the digestive tract, the liver and pancreas, the lungs, and some more. The mesoderm furnishes a great variety. It is enough to mention the bones and muscles and connective tissue, the circulatory system, and the organs of reproduction. In the fully developed body certain parts may have been formed from two or more of these layers.
But before the body has developed to any recognizable shape the outer layer of cells has been forming branches which push into the wall of the uterus like the roots of a tree. Thus the placenta, or afterbirth, is formed and from now on the tremendous demands of the embryo for nourishment are supplied by a sort of filtering, as it were, of materials from the mother’s blood to that of the child through these roots. The blood cells themselves are too large to cross this barrier as are other substances in the mother’s blood which are said to have too large molecules.
The embryo grows at an enormous rate. During its life in the womb it may increase its weight two billion times. Hence it is not remarkable that its need for nourishment cannot be met by fluid diffusing about the cells and that the heart and blood vessels begin to form about the third week.
The growth of the placenta keeps pace with this and from it membranes soon form. They fill with fluid which compresses the attachment between the child and the placenta until it becomes a narrow cord. The result is that we find the child suspended in the fluid retained by the membranes while it is connected to the mother only by the umbilical cord from its navel. It remains protected in this way until the time of its delivery.
Placenta is the Latin word for a flat cake and that accurately describes its shape after it has been delivered from the uterus. It is usually a good inch and a half thick at the middle, thinner at the edges. Its diameter is six or eight inches. It may be at any position on the wall of the uterus according to where the ovum happened to attach itself but fortunately this is usually near the top. If the ovum goes well to the bottom before taking hold, an unfortunate condition then occurs known as a placenta previa. This leads to a bad complication of pregnancy, for the placenta is over the external opening of the womb. When labor begins, this opening, called the os uteri, enlarges, pulling away from the placenta, which causes tearing of the blood vessels and bad bleeding. In normal labor after the baby has been delivered the uterus continues to contract, separating the placenta which quickly follows after the baby. Hence the very logical popular name, afterbirth. Then contraction of the uterus closes the vessels in the raw area left on its wall, and stops the bleeding.
*3/276/5*

Requip (Ropinirole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Requip(Ropinirole)
GETTING INTO VITAMINS: SHOULD YOU TAKE SUPPLEMENTS?
Since vitamins occur in all organic material, some containing more of one vitamin than another and in greater or lesser amounts, you could say that if you ate the “right” foods in a well-balanced diet, you would get all the vitamins you need. And you would probably be right. The problem is, very few of us are able to arrange this mythical diet. According to Dr. Daniel T. Quigley, author of The National Malnutrition, “Everyone who has in the past eaten sugar, white flour, or canned food has some deficiency disease, the extent of the disease depending on the percentage of such deficient food in the diet.”
Most of the foods we eat have been processed and depleted in nutrients. Take breads and cereals, for example. Practically all of them you find in today’s supermarkets are high in nothing but carbohydrates. “But they are enriched!” you say. It says so right on the label. Enriched.
Enriched? The standard of enrichment for white flour is to replace the twenty-two natural nutrients that are removed with three В vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, and iron salts. For the staff of life, that seems a pretty flimsy stick. I think the answer on supplements is clear.
*3/134/5*