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Archive for the ‘General Health’ Category

MENTAL HEALTH: LIGHT TREATMENT

Wednesday, July 28th, 2010

In 1979, Dr. Al Lewy, now professor of psychiatry at Oregon Health Sciences University in Portland, and Dr. Wehr began work on a hormone called melatonin, released by the pineal gland in the brain. Their studies revealed that light plays an important role in triggering and setting the biological clocks in animals. Other studies showed that exposure to light stops nighttime production of melatonin in the pineal gland. Dr. Lewy, Dr. Wehr, and their colleagues have found that nighttime melatonin production in humans can be stopped with 2,500 lux-intensity light. (Lux, Latin for light, is the unit of measure for brightness.) This suggests that such brightness could be used to reset human biological rhythms.
It was their melatonin work that brought Herb Kern to the National Institute in 1980. He asked Dr. Lewy to measure his melatonin levels. Mr. Kern, an engineer, had an undiagnosed case of SAD. He had kept records on his mood changes for 15 years and had told his doctors that, as the days got shorter, he “just wanted to crawl into a hole and hibernate.” Mr. Kern recalls, “I finally latched on to the thought that sunlight was the key. When the days got longer in summer, the wheels of my brain would spin again.” But, he says, his doctors didn’t listen to him.
Dr. Lewy suggested lengthening Mr. Kern’s winter days by sitting him in a room under bright fluorescent lights for 6 hours – three before dawn and three after sundown. Within days, Kern reported feeling as if springtime were around the corner. He still takes 2 hours of light treatment at 6 A.M. from fall to spring. “Since using the lights, I have been able to manage my depressions very nicely,” he says.
The doctors spent the next few years focusing on the effects of light on mood and wanted to extend the study with more patients. Dr. Rosenthal told a reporter from the Washington Post about Mr. Kern and another patient. When the article was printed, thousands inquired about treatment. That was the first hint that SAD was a common disorder. With a selected group of patients, the doctors showed that light relieves wintertime depression. They also found that the brighter the light, the shorter the SAD treatment. Since then, studies worldwide have demonstrated the same, and the American Psychiatric Association now lists seasonal mood swings as a form of mental disease.
In New York, Dr. Terman has a new computerized approach: creating an artificial dawn. In phototherapy, “we were turning on very bright light suddenly after the patient wakes up,” he says. “But when the eye is adapted to the dark while sleeping, it is ‘looking’ for a gradual transition to dawn. We put computer systems in a patient’s bedroom to gradually turn on a light from very dim to bright, like a sunrise. Within a few days, we got results equal to any effect of bright-light therapy. The patients wake up spontaneously, refreshed. ”
Dr. Terman says he tried it, because he detects seasonal changes in energy level and sleep in himself: “I maintained a summer sunrise throughout winter and was not groggy. It is a natural alarm clock.”
Scientists already have shown that exposure to light can reset the biological clock if work shifts change or jet lag strikes. Some people have delayed sleep – biological clocks that won’t let them go to sleep before 2 A.M. Others have advanced sleep and can’t keep their eyes open after sundown. Light treatment can reset both.
*81/266/5*

GOOD NUTRITION FOR OLDER PEOPLE: DIETARY PLANNING

Wednesday, July 28th, 2010

The lifetime pattern of eating is not easily changed, and the older woman who has always liked rich desserts or the man accustomed to eating hearty rich foods will find it difficult to adjust to the lower calorie requirements. The Four Food Groups still furnish the basis for meal planning because they provide all the nutrients needed by the older man and woman.
Since the Basic Diet provides 1165 kcal, the woman of 51 years or older will need to restrict her intake of calorie-rich foods lest she rapidly gain weight. Some useful points to keep in mind when planning meals for older persons are noted below.
1. Consider the food likes and dislikes of the individual. Learn to use essential foods in dishes acceptable to the person. For example, milk may be disliked as a beverage but well accepted in puddings, custards, cream soups, and cream sauces, on cereals, and so on.
2. Use fried foods, rich desserts, highly seasoned foods, and strongly flavored vegetables with discretion and according to the patient’s tolerance.
3. If chewing is difficult, adjust the meals to include finely minced or chopped meats, soft breads, fruits, and vegetables.
4. Serve four or five small meals when the appetite is poor.
5. Breakfast is the meal most enjoyed by many older persons, and every effort should be made to provide pleasing variety.
6. Dinner at noon rather than in the evening is preferred by some.
7. If coffee and tea produce insomnia, they should be restricted to meals early in the day.
8. Encourage a liberal fluid intake daily. Adjust the fiber content of the diet if constipation is a problem.
*81/234/5*

Gasex

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
ENERGIZING FOODS AND SUPPLEMENTS: AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein (all proteins are made up of amino acids). They are used to synthesize other proteins-including muscle proteins-and are prime energy sources. They help break down fats for energy use, strengthen the body’s connective tissue to prevent injury, improve mental alertness, quicken reflexes, elevate moods, and promote resistance to disease.
There are twenty-two known amino acids, eight of which are called essential. These, unlike the others, cannot be manufactured by the human body and must be obtained from food or supplements. (A ninth amino acid, histidine, is considered essential only for infants and children.)
The essential amino acids are isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. In order for the body to use effectively and synthesize protein, all the essential amino acids must be present and in the proper proportions. Even the temporary absence of a single essential amino acid can adversely affect protein synthesis and your energy benefits. In fact, whatever essential amino acid is low or missing will proportionately reduce the effectiveness of all the others.
Amino acid supplements are available in balanced formulas as well as in individual supplements. I’d recommend the former for general energy enhancement. And while taking an amino acid supplement, don’t forget that you need enough vitamins B6 and B12, and niacin in your diet for proper metabolism.
*10/137/5*

Purinethol (Mercaptopurine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
GETTING INTO VITAMINS
What Vitamins are Not
Vitamins are neither pep pills nor substitutes for food. A lot of people think vitamins can replace food. They cannot. In fact, vitamins cannot be assimilated without ingesting food. There are a lot of erroneous beliefs about vitamins.
Vitamins are not pep pills and have no caloric or energy value of their own.
Vitamins are not substitutes for protein or for any other nutrients, such as minerals, fats, carbohydrates, water – or even for each other!
Vitamins themselves are not the components of our body structures.
You cannot take vitamins, stop eating, and expect to be healthy.
How they Work
If you think of the body as a car’s combustion engine and vitamins as spark plugs, you have a fairly good idea of how these amazing minute food substances work for us. Vitamins regulate our metabolism through enzyme systems. A single deficiency can endanger the whole body. Vitamins are components of our enzyme systems which, acting like spark plugs, energize and regulate our metabolism, keeping us tuned up and functioning at high performance.
Compared with our intake of other nutrients like proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, our vitamin intake [even on some mega-dose regimens] is minuscule. But a deficiency in even one vitamin can endanger the whole human body.
*2/134/5*

Revia (Naltrexone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Revia(Naltrexone)
GETTING INTO VITAMINS: NUTRIENTS, MICRONUTRIENTS AND MACRONUTRIENTS
What Are Nutrients?
They’re more than vitamins, though people often think they are the same thing.
The six important nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water – absorbable components of foods – and necessary for good health. Nutrients are necessary for energy, organ function, food utilization, and cell growth.
The Difference Between Micronutrients and Macronutrients
Micronutrients, like vitamins and minerals, do not themselves provide energy. The macronutrients – carbohydrates, fat and protein – do that, but only when there are sufficient micronutrients to release them. With nutrients, less is often the same as more. The amount of micronutrients and macronutrients you need for proper health is vastly different – but each is important.
How Nutrients Get to Work
The body simplifies nutrients in order to utilize them. Nutrients basically work through digestion. Digestion is a process of continuous chemical simplification of materials that enter the body through the mouth. Materials are split by enzymatic action into smaller and simpler chemical fragments, which can then be absorbed through walls of the digestive tract – an open-ended muscular tube, more than thirty feet long, which passes through the body – and finally enter the bloodstream.
*4/134/5*

Rogaine (Minoxidil Solution)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
ENERGIZING VITAMIN E
This is one of the most important nutrients for anyone who exercises, or wants to. It not only improves cardiovascular tone and circulation, which increases the amount of oxygen supplied to muscles and minimizes the accumulation of lactic acid that can cause muscle spasms, but it is also an excellent antioxidant. (When tissue oxygenation is increased by aerobic exercises, your need for antioxidants also increases.) Additionally, it can alleviate muscle cramps.
Wheat germ oil is one of the best natural sources, particularly because it also contains octacosanol. Other good dietary sources are soybeans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, leafy greens, whole wheat, whole-grain cereals, and eggs.
Vitamin E supplements are available in oil-base capsules, as well as water-dispersible dry tablets, and are supplied in strengths from 100 to 1,000 Ш. Though it is virtually nontoxic, it is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the body. Excessive doses are not recommended without consultation with a nutritionally oriented doctor.
City dwellers and people with chlorinated drinking water have a greater need for vitamin E, which enhances the effectiveness of vitamin A. When taken with 25 mcg. of selenium, vitamin E becomes more potent. Dosages should be increased (or decreased) gradually, and supplements should not be taken together with inorganic iron (ferrous sulphate), which can destroy vitamin E. (Take these at least eight hours apart.)
*8/137/5*

Zyloprim (Allopurinol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zyloprim(Allopurinol)
ACUTE CONFUSION
Acute confusion in the elderly is a very common condition. ‘Acute’ can mean anything from something lasting only a few minutes to a state lasting up to three months. The point that must be stressed again and again, however, is that confusion is not dementia and that acute confusion in an old person is simply that person’s way of presenting with an illness. The vast majority of acute con-fusional states in old people are fully reversible.
What do we mean by acute confusion? One of the best descriptive words for it is ‘delirium’. One can then picture the sufferer being disorientated in time and place: they are not sure where they are and what time of day it is. Their mood is up and down, one minute calm and happy to cooperate and the next agitated and wanting to do inappropriate things. This is often called labile mood. The person’s memory is usually poor and they can be quite drowsy at times. One of the most distressing features is the tendency to hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations occur more easily if the person has poor eyesight and hearing, but they also tend to happen when the light is poor (the twilight times of dawn and evening). The condition of confusion occurring at twilight has been termed sundowner syndrome. Common objects get mistaken for something more sinister – the pattern on the carpet becomes a mass of crawling insects. Delusions are wrong ideas that the deluded person will not accept as wrong; you can talk and explain until you are blue in the face but the sufferer will still insist that they are right. Delusions can take many forms but in acute confusion they are usually short-lived. They may be slightly comical in that the sufferer insists that a number 48 bus is due in their bedroom any minute to take them to the shops. Sometimes they are more distressing, especially when the person insists, for example, that their food is poisoned or that one of their carers is going to harm them. These are known as paranoid delusions, paranoia being a mental state where you wrongly think that you are going to be harmed.
People with acute confusional states are not usually aggressive. Occasionally violence in the form of hitting out occurs, usually as the result of the confused person being restrained from doing something which is going to be harmful to them. If agitated, the person’s speech is often affected; sentences don’t get finished as they rush onto something else, or the drowsiness can make the speech a little slurred. Conditions that cause confusional states to come on very suddenly (such as infections) often cause the person to look and feel unwell. They may be flushed and warm to the touch, even sweating. They may complain of very vague aches and pains as well as having no appetite. Nausea and vomiting can occur and the confusion may be accompanied by weakness and lethargy. Sometimes no other symptoms occur and yet an underlying illness is still present.
*1/128/5*

Levoxyl (Levothyrone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Levoxyl(Levothyrone)
SNORING: SHORT HISTORY
The comparatively recent “discovery” of the sleep apnoea syndromes and the heightened community awareness of problematic snoring has given rise to the misconception that it is an entirely new phenomenon, an affliction of the modern era like repetitive strain injury (RSI) suffered by computer keyboard operators. In fact snoring has been with us for centuries, but only recently has the technology been available to investigate the sleeping patient in a way that will not result in sleep disruption.
Unfortunately we will never know whether pre-historic man was a snorer but, with some exercise of the imagination, it is not difficult to picture our cave dwelling ancestors sharing this attribute with modern man. Snoring has been observed in animal species other than man, the most notorious being the easily recognizable brachycephalic or short nosed breeds of dogs such as the bulldogs, pugs and Pekingese; admirable dogs in many respects but with an unfortunate predisposition to respiratory problems. Laboured breathing after exercise, frequent infections and snoring all result from a distorted airway, particularly the elongation of the soft palate, a part of the airway which plays a crucial role in the development of snoring in both man and beast.
Some of the greatest writers and poets are responsible for the earliest references to snoring. Homer, the ancient Greek poet, believed to have lived around 800 B.C. wrote in his epic work, The Odyssey: “Then nodding with the fumes of wine, Dropt his huge head, and snoring lay supine.” ‘The great writers obviously knew something about the relationship between alcohol, sedatives and snoring, as William Shakespeare was to write in Macbeth (1605): “The surfeited Groomes doe mock their charge with snores. I have drugg’d their Possets.” Again from Shakespeare, and with a touch of artistic license in The Tempest “Thou do’st snore distinctly, There’s meaning in thy snores.” Perhaps the most celebrated snorer appears in the pages of Charles Dickens’ novel, The Pickwick Papers (1837) as the fat boy Joe who was forever nodding off to sleep. Dickens’ portrayal of young Joe made an impression on the medical world, as the Pickwickian Syndrome became synonymous with obese and excessively sleepy patients which probably represented an early recognition of the sleep apnoea syndromes.
Snoring has not only provided subject material for poets, playwrights and novelists for centuries, but has without doubt been keenly observed by the medical profession for at least the same period of time. The very first volume of the British Medical Journal (1889) published a letter on the subject of snoring which, although somewhat dated by the quaint prose of the nineteenth century, recognized the effects of nasal obstruction and alcohol, and alluded to the sleep disturbance associated with severe snoring.
*1/130/5*

Renagel (Sevelamer Hydrochloride)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Renagel(SevelamerHydrochloride)
ENERGIZING FOODS AND SUPPLEMENTS: VITAMIN A
This fat-soluble vitamin, which is stored in your body and generally doesn’t need daily replenishment, promotes growth, strong bones, healthy skin; keeps the outer layers of tissues and organs healthy; and potentiates your needed zinc.
If your weekly diet includes ample amounts of liver, carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes, or cantaloupe, it’s unlikely that you need an A supplement. But if you’re often fatigued, you might have a vitamin A deficiency, in which case supplementation would be recommended.
Vitamin A supplements are available in two forms: one derived from natural fish-liver oil and the other water-dispersible. (Water-dispersible supplements are either acetate or palmitate and are recommended for anyone intolerant to oil, particularly acne sufferers.) The most common daily doses are 10,000 to 25,000 IU. Since vitamin A can build up in the system, I advise taking this vitamin for only five days a week and then stopping for two. Toxicity can occur if more than 100,000 IU is taken daily for an extended period of time, doses of 18,500 IU daily can cause toxicity in infants. (Symptoms of toxicity include hair loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, scaly skin, blurred vision, rashes, bone pain, headaches, and irregular menses, among others.) If you notice any of these symptoms, discontinue use of supplement until you’ve consulted your doctor or a nutritionally oriented physician. Vitamin A works best with zinc, В complex, vitamins D and E, calcium and phosphorus. It also helps vitamin С from oxidizing.
*3/137/5*

Aricept (Donepezil Hcl)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Aricept(DonepezilHcl)
GUIDE TO HERBS: SARSAPARILLA, SCULLCAP, SENEGA AND SLIPPERY ELM
Sarsaparilla
Smilax ornala
Description: Native to South America, it is a perennial climber with roots up to 2 meters long. The stem has alternate leaves, prickles and no flowers or fruit to be observed.
Uses: Useful to eliminate urea and uric acid from the blood, which is needed in the case of gout and rheumatism sufferers, and occasionally psoriasis patients. It helps to improve the health of the skin. The root of the plant is the part used.
Scullcap
Scutellaria lateriflora
Description: Called Madweed, this North American native is a creeping perennial with downy leaves and blue and white tubular flowers.
Uses: A great nervine for spasms, excitability, epilepsy, insomnia, headache, tension, anxiety, hysteria and twitchiness. It is considered a specific for St Vitus’s Dance, inducing sleep.
Senega
Poly gala senega
Description: A North American perennial with milky sap, it grows to 24 cm, alternate leaves and produces a spike of 3cms covered in pale pink flowers. The root is the part used and is twisted and tastes like wintergreen.
Uses: Most commonly used as an expectorant to relieve bronchitis but is also used as a diuretic.
Slippery Elm
Ulmus fulva
Description: This is a small tree that grows in North America with hairy rough leaves and buds covered in a yellow fluff. The inner bark of the tree is used.
Uses: Slippery elm affects the whole body, is rich in mucilage, acting rapidly by soothing the inflamed surfaces of a variety of mucous membranes and is especially beneficial for the lungs, stomach and intestines. Its soothing qualities help control diarrhea, enteritis, colitis and gastritis, and it can be taken by either spreading the powdered bark over cereal or making it into a paste with water. Slippery elm tablets and capsules can be very convenient, depending on the condition to be treated and the age of the patient. It is as nutritious as oats and is good as a base in invalid food.
*19/199/5*

Cystone (Uricare)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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FITNESS FOR ALL
What Is Fitness?
Fitness, both emotional and physical, should be the goal of anyone who desires an energized and productive life. It is more than just the absence of disease. It’s a feeling of allover well-being that generates from good joint flexibility and muscular development, from healthy lung and heart stamina, and from the ability to exert reasonable stress on the body with positive invigorating results. It’s a creative energy that allows us to greet each day and its tasks with confidence and enthusiasm.
There are no diets or supplements that can take the place of exercise.
Inactivity is not conducive to fitness. Our hearts, lungs, muscles – in fact, all our organs – need exercise to keep them functioning at their best. There are no diets or supplements that can take the place of exercise, but when the right foods, supplements, and exercises are combined, the results are unbeatable!
Why You Need Energy
Energy is necessary for all bodily functions – even sleeping. Granted, more energy is needed for running a mile than for taking a nap, but it is essential for both. The more active you are the more energy you will have.
Energy comes from the burning up of calories that we get from food, and oxygen is the fuel that’s necessary to turn these calories into energy. In other words, no matter how well you eat, if your body’s not receiving sufficient oxygen, you’re not getting the benefits of energy.
The more active you are, the more stamina your oxygen-delivering systems will have – and the more active you can be.
How To Up Your Energy
• Exercise regularly.
• Avoid sugar-rich foods (a quick sugar high that elevates glucose levels is all too often followed by a period of low blood sugar and an even lower energy level).
• Don’t become overweight (carrying around excess body fat drains energy).
• Keep your diet high in complex carbohydrates – vegetables, fruits, grain products – and low in sugars and fats.
• Increase your fibre intake.
• Avoid sleeping pills (they change sleeping patterns and usually leave you feeling not rested the following day).
• Drink 6-10 glasses of water daily, especially during warm weather (dehydration causes fatigue and can be dangerous).
• Keep away from stimulants (caffeine, amphetamines, etc.; those roller-coaster ups and downs take heavy energy tolls).
• Try meditation, yoga, or biofeedback to minimize daily stress, which can be a real energy depleter
*1/137/5*

Atropisol (Atropine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Atropisol(Atropine)
HERBS THAT WORK AS PREGNANCY SUPPLEMENTS
Alfalfa As a supplement, 3 capsules daily (with meals) can supply a mother-to-be with an assortment of vitamins, ample calcium, and adequate magnesium.
Parsley Eight sprigs as garnish or two capsules daily are an excellent source of iron, potassium, and phosphorus, and can help reduce water retention.
Beet Root A great natural supplier of iron that will not constipate the way regular iron supplements might.
Gotu Kola Not to be confused with the kola nut, which contains caffeine, a non-desirable for shaping up, Gotu Kola is rich in В vitamins, and supplements of 2-4 capsules daily with meals can help women cope more easily with the stresses of pregnancy and childbirth.
Fenugreek One cup of fenugreek tea, or two supplemental capsules daily, helps provide strength and elasticity to uterine muscles and tissues. This herb has been found to be especially effective if used during the last weeks of pregnancy.
*1/137/5*

Mysoline (Primidone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Mysoline(Primidone)
ENERGIZING SUPPLEMENTS: VITAMIN С
Though not an energizer by itself, vitamin С is essential for the formation of collagen, which is necessary for the growth and repair of body tissue, cells, blood vessels, and bones, and is a deterrent to energy-depleting stress and illness.
Because our bodies cannot synthesize vitamin C, it’s important that your diet include adequate amounts of citrus fruits, berries, green and leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cauliflower, and potatoes. As a supplement, vitamin С is available in just about every form a vitamin can take (pills, time-release tablets, syrups, powders, chewable wafers) and is available in tablet and capsule strengths up to 1,000 mg. (Powders go as high as 5,000 mg. per teaspoon.) The daily dosages usually range between 500 mg. and 4,000 mg. (4 grams). The best supplements are those that contain the complete vitamin С complex of bioflavonoids, hesperidins, and rutin, which are sometimes labeled citrus salts. (The only difference between natural or organic vitamin С and ordinary ascorbic acid is primarily the individual’s ability to digest it.) Because this is a water-soluble vitamin, toxicity is rare, though an excessive intake could cause oxalic-acid and uric-acid stone formation. (Taking magnesium, vitamin B&, and a sufficient amount of water daily can usually prevent this.) Mega-doses (over 10 g daily) could cause unpleasant side effects – diarrhea, excess urination, skin rashes. Cutting back the dosage (which should be done slowly) will eliminate these side effects. If you are taking more than 750 mg. daily, I suggest taking a magnesium supplement also. This is an effective deterrent against kidney stones.
Caution: Vitamin С should not be used by cancer patients undergoing radiation or chemotherapy. Also, diabetics should be aware that vitamin С can alter results of urine tests for sugar, as well as other laboratory tests (particularly those to detect the presence of blood in stool). Before having any medical workups, inform your doctor if you are taking vitamin C. If you exercise in any urban area, be aware that carbon monoxide destroys vitamin C, so up your intake accordingly.
Also, if you’ve been taking aspirin to relieve the pain or inflammation of a workout injury, you should know that you’re tripling the excretion rate of your vitamin С – and replenishment is in order.
*6/137/5*

Tiotropium

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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TREATMENT OF SNORING
DR. SCANES SPICER (Welbeck Street) writes: In reply to “Stertor’s” query, I would suggest that the condition of the nose and naso-pharynx be thoroughly explored by anterior and posterior rhinoscopy, to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, structural or erectile. In my experience, most snorers have some obstruction of the nose, which increases from erectile conditions of the mucous membrane on assuming the horizontal position; and most cases of snoring will yield when the physiological path of the breath is permanently restored, together with many of the symptoms so often accompanying snoring, such as nightmare, restless nights, dryness of mouth, and unpleasant taste of mouth in the morning, necessity for placing the water-bottle by the bedside to allay the parched throat, post-nasal catarrh, and throat irritation and cough. Over-indulgence in food, alcohol, and tobacco undoubtedly increases the erectile condition of the obstruction.
Thereafter, some discussion could always be found on the causes of snoring and methods to minimize it, but it was not until the 1960s that the diverse branches of medical science began to focus their attention on the subject, paving the way for significant developments into our understanding of snoring and its consequences. Research into the nature of sleep was accelerated after the late 1930s when it was discovered that sleep, rather than being a steady state, was characterized by a series of discrete and measurable stages. However, it was not until the late 1950s and the following decade that these stages were accurately described to an extent where they could be applied with some confidence in a clinical setting. An unfortunate fact of medical practice and research has been the need for some sort of invasive monitoring, a good example being the collection of blood samples. After years of observation and speculation about the effects of snoring, medical scientists had accumulated enough evidence to suspect that the airway obstruction of severe snoring impaired the normal oxygenation of blood. The most direct way to measure blood oxygen levels was, and still is, to take a sample of blood with a needle and syringe and have it analyzed, but this presents very real problems if one proposes to take samples from sleeping, snoring patients. Many patients are so intimidated by the thought of multiple blood collections that they would find it impossible to sleep, and it would also be necessary to take a large number of samples during the period of sleep to give a true indication of oxygenation throughout the night.
In the 1940s a non-invasive technique for estimating blood oxygen levels was developed which, to put very simply, relied on the absorbance of light by oxygenated blood. The device was called an ear oximeter, and by placing a light source and detector on the earlobe it was possible to measure blood oxygen levels continuously with minimal trauma to the patient. The first commercially viable oximeters became available in the 1970s, a decade which established their usefulness in a variety of clinical situations, particularly in the management of respiratory and sleep disorders. Oximeters have since been substantially modified. They are readily portable and suitable for bedside use, are attached with reasonable comfort to either ear or finger and are probably the most important diagnostic tools in those laboratories which have been set up to investigate snoring and other sleep disorders.
An understanding of snoring has resulted from the contributions of several medical specialties. Mention has been made of advances in sleep staging and oxygen monitoring technology but we owe just as much to the physiologists who told us about the mechanisms which control breathing, to the radiologists who filmed the collapse of the upper airway during snoring, to the cardiologists who verified the dramatic response of the heart to the suffocating effects of severe snoring and finally to the band of dedicated researchers who would spend months observing the snoring patient from one night to another while the rest of the community slept.
*2/130/5*

Orap (Pimozide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
ACE INHIBITORS
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower high blood pressure by relaxing the tense walls of tight arteries. Capoten and Renitec were a great breakthrough in the management of high blood pressure when they first appeared on the scene in the late eighties. They were touted as effective agents – virtually side effect free. Soon up to 30 per cent of people taking ACE inhibitors complained of a chronic cough. Further side effects became known which were only visible in the test tube.
The ACE inhibitors caused kidney damage, and deaths occurred amongst a small group of immune suppressed people taking ACE inhibitors, with other medication. In spite of the potential for these widely reported side effects, doctors are avid prescribers of ACE inhibitors. Happily this group of drugs reduces the incidence of death amongst people with heart failure by up to 40 per cent. The wise patient taking ACE inhibitors reminds their doctor to take blood samples for both kidney function tests and a full blood count every six to twelve months.
Antihistamines, Blood Pressure, Heart Failure, Vasodilators.
Home Remedies
If a “Capoten Cough” complicates the use of ACE inhibitors a dose reduction usually deals with the problem. Occasionally complete withdrawal of the drug is in order. Evidence is accumulating that the non sedating antihistamines and some of the Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) inhibit a “Capoten Cough”. Prescribing a second drug to counteract the side effects of a first one is a deplorable practice. Doctors should avoid it where ever possible.
*2/131/5*

Urecholine (Bethanechol Chloride)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
ENERGIZING FOODS AND SUPPLEMENTS: B-COMPLEX VITAMINS
These help release energy from the food we eat by converging carbohydrates into glucose and increasing our ability to fight fatigue. They also help form healthy red blood cells that deliver needed oxygen to the body.
The B-complex vitamins are Vitamin Bi (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin В3 (niacin), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin B13 (orotic acid), pangamic acid, biotin, choline, folic acid, inositol, and PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid).
For optimal natural intake of В vitamins, your diet should include sufficient weekly amounts of liver, dried yeast, whole wheat, oatmeal, peanuts, vegetables, bran, fish, eggs, wheat germ, cantaloupe, cheese, root vegetables, brewer’s yeast, whole brown rice, whole grains, pumpkin and sesame seeds, fruits, kidney, heart, raisins, unrefined molasses, cabbage, the white meat of poultry, avocados, dates, and bran. Milk, dairy products, and red muscle meat are also fine sources of В vitamins, but for some people milk and dairy products can cause mucous buildup and engender asthmatic-like reactions, which can hamper athletic performance. Additionally, these particular protein sources can deplete enzymes that are necessary to protect the body from injuries.
B-complex supplements are available in low- and high-potency dosages — and work best when vitamins Bi, B2, and Вб are in equal 50-mg. or 100-mg. balance. Because they are water-soluble vitamins, there is no known toxicity. (If taken in great excess, it’s possible that symptoms such as tremors, edema, nervousness, rapid heartbeat, allergies, and neurological disturbances could develop.)
Caution: Anyone taking L-dopa medication for Parkinson’s disease should not take vitamin B6.
If you’re a heavy alcohol or coffee drinker, on the pill, under stress, or consume large amounts of refined carbohydrates, B-complex supplementation is recommended.
*4/137/5*

Synthroid (Levothyroxine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Synthroid(Levothyroxine)
Other names: Soloxine, Levothroid
EYE’S PARTS PROVIDING NORMAL 20/20 VISION: CORNEA, LENS, ETC
The cornea is so clear from its precise alignment of fibers that unless you look closely you aren’t aware of its presence. If any interference occurs in the fibers’ orderly alignment, the cornea gets cloudy and blurs the vision. This may happen from injury, scarring, or disease. The blink reflex and the lid tend to protect the cornea by their sensitivity to the slightest touch or threat of a touch. The blink instantly wipes off anything which lands on the cornea such as dust. On the other hand, if something does trouble the cornea, one feels acute pain which is a warning to get help. Loss of this sensitivity or loss of the blink reflex or of the lid action makes the cornea vulnerable to injury. Covering the cornea with a contact lens might lose the eye’s sensitivity, blink, or lid action.
Sometimes corneas are transplanted to replace the clouding of a diseased one. Corneas for transplantation may have been donated prior to death by considerate people.
Lying between the sclera and the retina is a maze of blood vessels that bring nourishment to the rods and cones of the retina. This maze is called the choroid (pronounced KOH-royd).
A transparent, semisoft material about half the size of a ten-cent piece – the Jens – is able to change shape to focus on objects at different distances from the eye. The lens is held in place by threadlike zonular fibers, which are connected from the lens edges to tiny but powerful ciliary muscles. At the command of a nerve coming from the brain, the ciliary muscles tighten or loosen the zonular fibers. The lens, which is flexible, changes its shape just enough to focus the eye for far or near distances.
As the lens ages, it loses some of its flexibility. Focusing on close objects becomes difficult since the lens won’t bulge as well, and presbyopia sets in. That’s why some people after the age of forty require reading glasses.
During the waking hours tear fluid is produced constantly. It is a natural washer of the lens with lysozyme, a powerful germ killer. When not needed, the tear gland shuts off the tear fluid such as during sleep.
The front and rear chambers of the eye are filled with a clear fluid called the aqueous humor. The Aqueous Humor is a crystal-clear liquid. It is able to escape from the eye, if pressure is applied, and yet under normal conditions it remains constant in amount and so keeps the intraocular pressure essentially uniform. The lens, and to some extent the cornea, are devoid of blood vessels, so that their nourishment must be supplied largely by the bathing fluid, and waste products must be carried away in a similar fashion. The aqueous humor must therefore contain the building blocks necessary for tissue replacement. Such building blocks might be glucose, coenzymes, minerals, and amino acids. The aqueous humor has to transport oxygen and carry away the waste products of metabolism, including carbon dioxide, from the interior of the eye to the blood.
This same fluid permeates the gel-like substance filling the rear cavity of the eye, which is named the Vitreous Humor. The vitreous humor is regarded by eye anatomists as an intricate fibrous network supporting an optically empty fluid surrounded by a definite membrane, which separates the vitreous from the lens and from the retina. In the jellylike material the same wavy gossamer-like threads or curtains can be identified at repeated slit-lamp examinations.
A ray of light passing directly from the object you see to the retina is on a line called the visual axis. It runs through a perfectly clear series of structures so that no light is lost and no distortion or obstruction of the image takes place. These clear structures are called the optical media, and they are as we describe them, from the front to the back of the eye, the cornea, the aqueous fluid, the lens, and the vitreous fluid.
*3/127/5*

Tulasi

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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WINDOWS TO THE WORLD: STORY OF KENNETH GETWELL
A 45-year-old man who is president of his own billion-dollar independent oil exploration and refining company, Kenneth Getwell, Jr. of Houston, Texas, had exceedingly poor vision. In each eye the man had minus five diopters of nearsightedness, which gave him uncorrected vision of 20/400. It was necessary for him to wear eyeglasses during his waking moments, since without them Getwell couldn’t even count fingers held in front of his face.
In February 1984, the oil multimillionaire, a devoted family man, took his wife and three children to Acapulco for a weekend jaunt. Among them was his favorite offspring, little Georgie, age six, who loved to swim and jump in the waves. Getwell enjoyed watching the youngster play in the water.
The only time that the former wildcatter removed his spectacles during daylight activities was when he went swimming himself. Of course, without corrective lenses the man couldn’t see any kind of detail, just color differentiations among various shapes.
On this bright December afternoon gamboling on the beach and in the azure blue waters of the vacation resort, Getwell and Georgie were cherishing some time alone together. Nobody else was on their particular stretch of beach. Georgie ran into the waves and swam out to the open water. The father, seeing this, let the little boy go for a short distance. Then he became somewhat alarmed because he knew his young son was in the water well over his head. The man called for the child to turn back, but Georgie apparently did not hear.
Methodically Getwell removed his shirt, sneakers, and eyeglasses, tucked the spectacles safely into a tennis shoe, and stepped into the water. He couldn’t see anything much but did swim in the general direction where he thought Georgie to be. He swam and swam but seemed never to reach the boy. Getwell couldn’t see him or hear him; the tyke had just disappeared, and the father felt panic.
His eyes focused better underwater than in the air, since water magnifies underwater objects by 25 percent. Getwell spotted a dark spot about eight feet below him and dived toward it. It happened that the dark object was his son, whom he grabbed up and brought in to shore. The child was unhurt but thoroughly frightened. It had been his first experience with hazardous currents and undertow.
Getwell and his family were quite disturbed by this incident, which could be indirectly attributed to the father’s nearsightedness. As soon as he returned home, the man went to visit Warren D. Cross, M.D., an outstanding ophthalmologist who conducts eye surgery practices in two separate locations in Houston, Bellaire Eye Associates and Town and Country Eye Associates. Getwell told Dr. Cross that his myopic eyes were rather ineffective windows to the world, and he never wanted any accident similar to Acapulco’s to happen again. His preference was for permanent surgical correction of the five-diopter nearsightedness.
Using a high-tech vision technique, Dr. Cross performed the patient’s required refractive correction in one of his Houston-area offices. It was a highly successful operation. Following postoperative healing, Kenneth Getwell, Jr. was able to see with a perfect 20/20 vision. Wearing eyeglasses became totally unnecessary for the oil man, and he proceeded to throw them away. More complete pictures of the world now entered through his visual windows.
*1/127/5*

Antivert (Meclizine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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YOUR SPECIAL VITAMIN NEEDS: SELECTING YOUR REGIMEN
We all know that not everyone has the same metabolism, but we often forget that this also means that not everyone requires the same vitamins. In the following sections I have outlined a number of personalized regimens for a variety of specialized needs. Look them all over and see which ones best fit your own special situation. If you fall under more than one category, adjust the combined regimens so that you are not double-dosing yourself, only adding the additional vitamins.
You will notice that in many cases I advise what I call an nsp, a nutrition starter program. This basic vitamin trio, taken twice daily, is my foundation for general good health.
nsp nutrition starter programme
High-potency multiple vitamin with chelated minerals [time release preferred]
Vitamin C, 1,000 mg. with bioflavonoids, rutin, hesperidin, and rose hips
High-potency chelated multiple minerals, 1 of each with breakfast and dinner.
Please note: Before starting any programme you should check with a nutritionally oriented doctor.
*67/134/5*

Cyklokapron (Tranexamic Acid)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cyklokapron(TranexamicAcid)
HIGH-TECH SURGERY: USE OF VIDEO SURGERY METHOD
Dr. Karl Zucker, professor of surgery at the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine, a pioneer video surgeon, has developed a treatment for intractable stomach ulcers. With his video viewer, he finds and severs the vagus nerve, which normally triggers the release of acid in the stomach. The cut nerve cannot stimulate the release of excess acid. As a result, less acid flows out of the stomach and the ulcers have a chance to heal. This can be done with a traditional operation, but Dr. Zucker says he prefers his comparatively painless procedure. He adds that it has worked in 19 of 20 cases.
Dr. Cooperman predicts that most surgeons will employ the video surgery method within 5 years. Until then, surgeons must master the new procedures it entails. Dr. Andrew Warshaw, associate chief of surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, is both enthusiastic and cautious about video surgery, saying, “Patients are going to be at some risk for a while. There was a wave of injuries caused by laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries. This has gotten better, but each new technique will go through that.”
Many surgeons have trouble, initially, comprehending in two dimensions what is going on in 3-D. For example, they may push their instruments too far or not far enough. Suturing is difficult – needle and thread may be 18 inches from the physician’s fingers, after all, and visible only on a TV screen.
Some surgeons seem unable to adjust, and Dr. Warshaw says he fears that refusal by such doctors to put aside the new surgery and resume the conventional methods they have mastered could put their patients at risk.
“It is important,” he says, “for surgeons to know when to quit and not consider it a defeat.” Otherwise, he notes, the defeated ones are the patients.
How does a patient know whether a video surgeon is competent? Experts say that once a doctor does at least 25 such surgeries, you can feel sure of that physician’s abilities. But, certainly, 100 surgeries are even more reassuring.
Surgeons often complain of a technology lag, saying too few instruments are designed especially for video surgery. Instrument companies are working to fill their quite specific needs. Under development is a direct-vision optical trocar that allows the surgeon to view the punctures at the very moment they are made.
*31/266/5*