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Archive for the ‘Gastrointestinal’ Category

Colospa (Mebeverine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Colospa(Mebeverine)
OBESITY TREATMENT: TESTING NEW ANTIFAT PILLS
All fat persons dream of taking a pill that will magically cause pounds to melt away. A dozen pharmaceutical companies are working hard to turn that dream into reality – and cash.
“We are trying to design molecules that intervene in the body’s regulation of fat storage and food consumption,” says Ann C. Sullivan, director of pharmacology and chemotherapy for Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., in Nutley, New Jersey. The pharmaceutical companies are now testing some of these molecules in human beings. Preliminary results indicate that they might work. The experiments are in their infancy but promising. The drugs being tested could help you lose weight in three ways:
1. Appetite suppression. One stomach hormone, released while eating, has been found to mildly suppress the appetite. But so far, an increased supply can be given by injection only.
Another group of drugs acts on a brain chemical called serotonin. Preliminary tests on obese patients resulted in weight loss.
Naloxone, a drug used to treat heroin users, blocks the brain’s reaction to opium products. Tests show it also has some effect in suppressing the appetite of persons who do not use such narcotics.
2. Fat and carbohydrate absorption. Fat forms if the digestive system sends an excess of fats and sugars into the blood. Several drugs block either fat or carbohydrate absorption.
3. Stepping up energy expenditure. Since the obese person’s body burns energy very efficiently, it simply uses fewer calories to maintain itself during weight loss. And as the body’s fuel-burning system burns less and less energy, weight loss becomes harder and harder. (It also results in the obese person feeling cold while dieting.) To counter this, three drug companies are testing compounds that might increase body energy use. If successful, they can step up the number of calories burned.
So far, none of the drugs being tested is available. Until they’re proved safe and marketed, you’ll have to lose weight without the aid of anti-fat pills.
*18/266/5*

Pro-banthine (Propantheline)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Pro-banthine(Propantheline)
CONTROLLING YOUR WEIGHT: ADVICE FOR THE UNDERWEIGHT
With so many people driving themselves daily to lose weight, it’s difficult to imagine that there are many others trying just as desperately to gain weight. In fact, putting on weight can often be more difficult than taking it off.
If you’re slightly underweight, but still look and feel great and have lots of vitality, you have nothing to worry about. But if you tire easily, are nervous or high strung, and often succumb to illness, you’re what is often referred to medically as the “asthenic” type – extremely frail and not physically fit.
If you’re planning a weight-gaining programme, don’t go for quick empty-calorie foods such as sweets, ice cream, cakes, and so forth. What your body needs are nutritious calorie-rich pound increasers, foods that will not only increase your weight but your energy as well.
Don’t start by scaring your stomach with too much food.
Gorging yourself with banana splits, milk shakes, or excessive amounts of any food is a bad way to begin. If you want success, you don’t want to scare your stomach with an onslaught it’s unprepared for. Easy-eating, high-calorie, high-nutrition meals and snacks are the way to go.
Some Great Put Ons
Avocados Just one gives you 334 calories and lots of nutrients. (Mash one into guacamole and enjoy it with 1/2 cup – 246 calories – of sour cream.)
Sweet potatoes You get 155 calories for the potato and an extra 100 if you top it with a tablespoon of butter, to say nothing of the 9,230 IU of vitamin A, and substantial amounts of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium.
Dates Snack on 10 a day and you’ll add 274 calories to your intake, while benefiting from 648 mg. of potassium, while helping to fill your daily requirement for calcium and magnesium.
Raisins Sprinkle them on salads and snack on them for fun because 1/2 cup adds 230 calories to your diet and supplies you with fine amounts of calcium and magnesium.
Cheese Top desserts with it, use it for snacks, make your own pizza and double up the cheese on it! Make lasagna with lots of whole milk ricotta – 1 cup has 428 calories and more than half your daily requirement of calcium.
Go nuts Roasted almonds have 984 calories a cup, peanuts have 836. (Just 6 macadamia nuts will add on 109 calories!) And don’t forget about pumpkin and sesame seeds, which can flesh you out per cup at 774 and 873 calories respectively. And best of all, they’re good for you!
• For liquids, go for juice instead of water. (Prune juice has 200 calories per 8 ounces.)
• Garnish vegetables with a dollop of sour cream or mayonnaise.
• Use honey or blackstrap molasses for sweeteners on breakfast cereals. (And don’t skip breakfast!)
• Relax with a late-night snack. A white-meat turkey sandwich, with mayonnaise, and a glass of milk will give you calories and the natural tranquillizer tryptophan.
• To improve your appetite, I’d recommend the following supplements:
• Vitamin В complex, 500-100 mg., taken with each meal
• Vitamin В12, 2,000 mcg. (time release), with breakfast
• An organic iron complex tablet (containing vitamin C, copper, liver, manganese, and zinc to help assimilate iron)
• Select an exercise that won’t overtire you, but will help you relieve tension. (See section 53 on yoga.) Just because you’re putting on weight, doesn’t mean it has to go to all the wrong places.
*8/137/5*

Cromolyn Sodium

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
OBESITY AND WEIGHT-GAINING PROCESS
Most experts contend that the tendency to be fat is inherited. But, says Dr. Theodore Van Itallie, co-director of the Obesity Research Center of St. Luke’s/ Roosevelt Hospital Center in Manhattan, “Obesity results from a combination of genetics and environment. You have to eat a lot to get fat.”
The obese body contains more fat cells- living sacs that make up the fatty flesh-than does the never-obese body. A 400-pound person may have four times more fat cells than does a normal-weight person. And the fat cells are bigger.
If you lose weight with any method, the fat cells block winning. It seems to work this way: As the obese person gains weight, the number of fat cells increases. That occurs because the specialized fat cells increase with the excess calories that the fat person consumes. When the fat cell reaches a certain diameter, the cell divides. Now the fat person not only has more pounds, he or she also has more cells.
When the morbidly fat person tries to lose weight, the fat cells become starved for more nutrition. When they shrink to a particular size, they do not die. Instead, they send chemical signals to the appetite centers in the brain. Those chemical semaphores tell the brain, “Eat! Eat! Eat!” And the weight-gaining process starts all over again. Scientists are avidly searching for chemicals that will block the “eat” signals.
*16/266/5*

Cytotec (Misoprostol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cytotec(Misoprostol)
OVEREATERS ANONYMOUS: BEAUTIFUL WOMAN INSIDE AND OUT
How does one tell in a few pages the story of fifteen and a half years in Overeaters Anonymous? How can I describe in a limited number of words what seven years of abstinence means coming after eight years of alternating between defiance, despair and submission to the program? How do I tell you of the gratitude in my heart for the miracles of abundance, joy, health, strength and power in my life today? Mine was a life lived in insecurity, self-doubt, chronic illness, addiction and obesity.
When people look at me today, they see a tall, attractive, slender woman. There seems to be a quality about me that many call “beautiful.” It is not my outward appearance, but rather something from within that comes from living the twelve steps to the best of my ability. I could not have imagined such a gift. When I daydreamed or “prayed,” it was to be thin magically and to have Prince Charming find me. I prayed for the money to pay my bills, take a trip, buy a new car and so on. Who would have thought to pray for a fullness from within that can make a spastic colon behave normally, control the chronic leg cramps and backaches and palpitations, and take away the desire for refined sugar and flour? That would be asking for miracles.
All I wanted was a nice house, a good school for my children, two cars in the garage and that I should look good on Saturday night. By praying for specific things, I was limiting the good in my life and expanding and giving power to negativity. It took many years to understand this; the gift of “life while living” came hard for me.
For years I tried frantically to prove that after I got thin I could eat anything I wanted anytime I wanted it. Always, I regained the lost weight, plus a few pounds, never being able to wear the same clothes from one season to another, always on a diet, whether eating or starving. I have known the pain and humiliation of not being able to participate in sports and of being laughed at by the other kids as well as by teachers, store clerks, strangers and even friends.
Though my recovery is not unique in Overeaters Anonymous, it may help the reader’s understanding to know the specific ills from which I have recovered. To the best of my recollection, they are: food obsession, the weight yo-yo syndrome, the scale running my life, my size being my self-worth, living on fifteen pills a day (amphetamines, diuretics, laxatives), smoking three packs of cigarettes a day, drinking ten to fifteen cans of diet soda a day, drinking fifteen mugs of coffee a day, chewing three packs of sugarless gum a day, chronic leg cramps, chronic lower backaches, chronic need for excessive sleep, spastic colon.
These symptoms were a way of life for me. I believed and trusted them. They kept me guilty and failing and never achieving the good within me. While I can say that I have experienced moments of great sensual pleasure, the deep fear within me always brought me crashing to new lows. It was a price I expected to pay for grabbing and snatching at material things.
My race for possessions and sensual gratification gave me a good deal of fun and enjoyment, which is recorded with love in my memory. But the price I had to pay in self-hate, rage at my children and poor health (I never really felt well unless I was using a substance or making love) was too high.
And one day it stopped. I don’t know when or how it stopped. It happened in stages, inch by inch, pound by pound. One day, after two and a half years of rigid abstinence and fear of food, I woke up and understood that I no longer had to fear sugar and flour. I know neither the time nor the process by which these dependencies were removed. I know only that when I stopped trying to control the timetable for the removal of my addictions, they were removed.
Today I celebrate seven years of abstinence, accumulated, by the grace of God, one day at a time. What does that mean to me? I have come to understand that we in OA cannot have the perfect, absolute abstinence that is common to AAs. Abstinence must be a different thing for each of us. Mine is always changing and growing, just as I change and grow to meet the world and God.
What worked for me in the beginning of my OA years is no longer valid. I had to learn that strict adherence to any food plan was madness for me if I hoped to thrive in the mainstream of life.
Today I am so filled with love and gratitude for my understanding of abstinence that I find it difficult to describe. I believe abstinence can be anything we want it to be, so long as we are honest with ourselves.
I have come to know my body inside and out, better than any doctor could know it. I have not been ill in seven years except for one brief bout with flu and a minor cold. Of course, I still go for medical checkups and I do not discount the value of medical science.
Today I am maintaining a 60-pound weight loss in the program. The twelve steps are a way of life for me, reaching into every aspect of my affairs. One year ago, my husband came to the program after fighting it for nine years. He has just completed his first year of abstinence and a 60-pound weight loss. My daughter is now in OA and actively participating in our teen program. It is a miracle in our lives and we are grateful for the abundance that has been given us.
Today I know that I have an addictive personality and that from time to time my illness will flare up. That doesn’t mean I am a failure. It means I can be restored to sanity any time I choose the power. While food is no longer a problem and many outer manifestations have been removed, the illness still creeps up in emotional storms and maladjustments. That is the nature of life, and I grow from working through each experience.
There are many things that are “right” with me today, starting with the Higher Power that is at work in my life. It is a Power that is within me, the highest self I can be, whom I choose to call God. God in my life is expressed through many channels, and I have a receiver that is turned on, thanks to the program. Some of the channels through which I receive God are music, poetry, literature, art, dance, people, nature, forces for good in the universe and love. Love is surely an expression of a Higher Power in my life. Today I can give and receive love—and know that, by the grace of God, I am a beautiful woman inside and out.
*19/245/2*

Duphalac (Lactulose)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Duphalac(Lactulose)
TREATMENT OF OBESITY: KNIFE AS LAST RESORT
Carla DeKok, 29, of Fort Morgan, Colorado, tipped the scales at 248 pounds on April 29, 1982. On that day, she went under the surgeon’s knife in a last-ditch effort to take off those pounds. At 5 feet, 5 1/2 inches, she was almost twice her ideal weight.
Like most obese persons, Ms. DeKok had failed in all weight-loss attempts. Finally, fearing that his wife’s weight could kill her, Dennis DeKok told her on their wedding anniversary, “You know what you can give me for our anniversary? Fifty more years. Have the surgery.”
In the months following the operation, Ms. DeKok achieved a weight of 149, down 99 pounds. Her coat size went from 26 1/2 to 14. Infertile before surgery, she has since had two babies. Her stomach capacity shrank from quart size to the size of a couple of tablespoons. It cannot hold big meals. If she tries to overeat, she immediately feels stuffed.
The operation she had is called a vertical-banded gastroplasty. It was developed by Dr. Edward E. Mason, professor of general surgery at the University of Iowa College of Medicine in Iowa City. Dr. Mason creates a small pouch at the opening of the stomach. At the bottom of the pouch, he places a plastic ring so that the exit cannot grow larger.
Dr. Mason estimates that 30,000 persons a year undergo surgery for obesity, most of them having their stomachs “pouched.” There is some risk. About one person in 200 dies from the surgery or its complications. Some patients require surgery later to correct problems that result from the pouch.
There is no proof that patients live longer because of such surgery, but they do lose pounds as well as their symptoms of diabetes and high blood pressure. And their arthritis symptoms are relieved, even if their ideal weight is not reached. Overall, most experts consider this surgery only as the last resort.
*17/266/5*

Bentyl (Dicyclomine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
Other names: Dicycloverine
INTAKE AND OUTGO: DIGESTION
It takes a great deal of material to satisfy the needs of the human body. A little something thin as sunbeams comes in through the skin. The lungs take care of the gases. Everything heavier is received and handled in the alimentary canal. Transformation of food and drink into tissue — to replace wear and tear and to grow – and into energy, is of course fundamental to all animal life. This is a chemical and physical change, and continues in man throughout his three score years and ten, or more.
Man, a highly developed mammal, consumes a varied diet, the chemistry of which is complicated. The wonder is not that he has occasional feelings of discomfort in his digestive tract, but that he can overwork this system as most Americans certainly do, and get by with it. He chooses what he puts into his mouth; then automatically a remarkable combination of motion, secretions from glands, and chemical changes occur, starting with his saliva as his mouth waters at the taste, sight, or smell of (sometimes at the mere thought of) his favorite foods.
The food travels down through the ailimentary canal, mouth to rectum, normally in some four to six hours. During most of this passage, various juices pour or trickle into the food mass, the appearance of which gradually changes into a thin soupy liquid in the small intestine. Much of it here is in soluble form, ready to be absorbed through the walls of the intestine into the adjoining blood stream.
Of course much of this fluid is provided by our drinks, and as chemical reactions seem to progress best in a fluid medium the old taboo against drinking water with our meals is really ridiculous. Nevertheless, many persons, chiefly women, have shown that one can subsist on very few drinks. A large and important part of the fluid comes from glands. A gland is a collection of cells which forms and gives off to the body a secretion. Glands vary in size from some so small that the naked eye does not distinguish them, to the liver, weighing pounds.
*1/276/5*

Canasa (Mesalamine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Canasa(Mesalamine)
Other names: Asacol, Pentasa, Asacol
AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (AMA)
The Australian Medical Association is a political pressure group dominated by medical specialists. Occasionally the AMA takes up an issue from the point of view of patients. The anti-smoking campaign is a case in point. But this case is an exception rather than the rule. Primarily, the AMA concerns itself with the market place interests of private specialists. More recently – in the face of imminent nationalization – the AMA has devoted considerable energy to the struggle between general practitioners and the Federal Labor Government. Sometimes described as the “Painters and Doctors Association”, the AMA would have a better public profile if it were honest or its industrial wing were separated from those sub divisions that conduct the most laudable of altruistic activities.
AMA Recommended Fee, Medical Specialists, Medicare Rebate, Medicare Schedule Fee.
Home Remedies
Place a few dollars each week in a biscuit tin for medical emergencies. The provision of gap insurance by Medicare or alternative private insurance companies is forbidden by government decree.
*7/131/5*

Zofran (Ondansetron)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zofran(Ondansetron)
THERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: FOOD AND GASTRIC ACIDITY
The sight, smell, and taste of food stimulate the secretion of gastric juice. Foods have a pH of 5 to 7 which is much less acid than gastric juice. Thus, no foods, including citrus and other acid-tasting fruits, arc sufficiently acid to change the acidity of the stomach contents.
Protein-rich foods neutralize gastric acid. Hence, the use of milk for many years has been emphasized. The neutralizing effect lasts for only 1/2 to 2 hours, and diet alone cannot be depended upon to fully neutralize the acids that are formed.
Fats reduce acid production and also decrease motility. The long-used regimen of milk and cream feedings for peptic ulcer were therefore intended to neutralize and to reduce acid production. Because saturated fats may increase the risk of atherosclerosis, cream is now seldom used.
Gastric acid production is increased by coffee, tea, alcohol, and tobacco; meat extractives as in meat soups, gravies, sauces; and spices such as chili powder, black pepper, mustard seed, and nutmeg. Other spices and herbs have no appreciable effect on acid production.
*1/234/5*

Protonix (Pantoprazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Protonix(Pantoprazole)
OBESITY: START TO LOOSE WEIGHT
Meal-times: The important rule is to reduce the size of your helpings, especially of bread and meat. Have two slices in place of three, or one in place of two. Don’t worry too much about the kinds of food you eat (apart from sugary ones which you must avoid); it’s the amount you need to concentrate on. Leave the table as soon as you have finished eating.
Between meals: Get to know your danger-times. Is it last thing at night? Or while watching television, or at the cinema? Does your willpower collapse when you walk past your usual sweet-shop? Try to avoid these trigger factors. Knowing about them in advance will put you on your guard. If you can’t, stay away from the biscuit tin and have a small helping of an allowed food from the following list.
Ultra-low-energy foods
Salad vegetables: carrots, cauliflower, celery, endive, cucumber, lettuce, mushrooms, peppers, radishes, tomatoes
Mushroom salad
Pickled cucumber (not sweet-and-sour)
Tea, coffee, clear soup
Grapefruit
Fresh or tinned asparagus (after all, you are saving money on sweets and liquor!)
Try to eat at home most of the time, especially during the early weeks of your diet. It is unfair to expose yourself to the temptations of dining out; and if you are dining at a friend’s home you may be embarrassed at having to refuse foods which your hostess has taken trouble to prepare. If you cannot avoid a social occasion, cut down on your food the day before and the day after.
At a restaurant, start with tomato juice or a fresh fruit juice; or have an unsweetened grapefruit or a consomme. Have a small helping of grilled fish or grilled steak, or a cottage-cheese salad, or chicken, veal or venison. Avoid all sauces and gravies, just have a green vegetable or a salad with a trace of dressing. End with a piece of fruit or a small piece of cheese.
When you go shopping plan your purchases before you set out. As an insurance against impulse buying, go shopping after a meal, not when you are hungry.
Try undertaking your weight reduction regime in a group. A husband and wife, a couple of friends or neighbors can support each other’s resolve.
Shun the ‘crank’ diets. Your diet must be one you can persist with; fad diets may lack important vitamins and minerals. On any restricted diet, you will lose weight fast during the first week (hence the brief success of so many diet fads): this is because you lose water as well as fat during the first few days of the diet. But your period of weight reduction is a time when you learn a correct eating pattern that will continue for life. You will miss out on this if you eat a crank diet to lose weight. Avoid repeated cycles of ‘crash’ dieting and weight gain; there is reason to think that this increases the risk of developing gallstones. Eating an unusually high proportion of any one foodstuff means you may be deficient in another. If the diet is very low in carbohydrate it will often become high in fat and cholesterol; this will tend to prevent your blood cholesterol from falling as it should on a reducing diet.
Canteen meals may not offer an adequate range of low-Calorie foods. You may be better off with a packed lunch.
Have a generous helping of green vegetables, carrots or tomatoes at least once a day, and eat a piece of citrus fruit daily. Not only are such foods filling but they provide necessary vitamins and roughage (fibre). If your reducing diet is likely to continue for two months or more, ask your doctor whether you should be taking a suitable vitamin preparation.
Becoming slim is its own reward, but as you succeed you will earn some other rewards too! Promise yourself an indulgence when you are half-way to your target, like a theatre, a football match, a brief vacation. A new suit or dress has the advantage of committing you to your new size, so this must await your arrival on target weight.
*7/202/5*

Maxolon (Metoclopramide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Maxolon(Metoclopramide)
OVEREATERS ANONYMOUS: JOURNEY THROUGH DECEPTION
Before I came through the OA door five years ago, I had done little about my weight problem. I blamed my sluggish metabolism. I complained that other people could eat more than I did without gaining a pound. Life was so unfair!
Years ago I discovered that when I kept busy the weight melted off without any conscious effort on my part. So I started a cycle that alternated between distraction and depression for the next twenty years. While busy, I maintained a low weight of 120 pounds. When the distraction lost its charm, as it inevitably did, I became depressed and immobilized. My weight would skyrocket, rising higher with each slump.
At five feet, three inches, I weighed 178 pounds. I know this only because I visited a diet club where they weighed me. Normally I shunned scales, mirrors and cameras so that I could keep my self-deceptions intact. I went through my fat periods in a state of isolation and suspension, waiting till I could become “real” again with another spate of activity.
Five years ago I was in another slump. This time I could not afford to wait for something to spur me out of it. I was facing possible bankruptcy and had two lawsuits pending. It might be years before these were settled. I had to come to terms with my weight problem now. I had no experience with other diet systems, but the choice was easy: I was broke and OA was free.
From the time of my first meeting I abstained and called my food in daily to the sponsor I chose that night. The food plan I adopted was a new game to me and by playing it I lost 52 pounds in four and a half months. My “tools” were diet pop, artificial sweeteners and nail biting. I went to many meetings, but treated them as living soap operas. I tuned out what I thought of as the “religious” part of the program. I stayed aloof because I did not want to identify with losers, i.e. compulsive overeaters. I was there to lose weight, not to change my personality or get religion. I thought my personality was just fine, and I already believed in a loving God.
When my weight got down to 120 pounds, I left OA with my slim body and my fat head.
I continued to abstain by myself and lost four more pounds. I was filled with complacence: I had the magic formula and I could do it alone! For the next two and a half years I weighed myself daily, kept a log of everything I ate and “passed” as a thin person. Certainly, I never gave any credit to OA.
I did learn three things from that first experience with OA: to follow a food plan; to be aware of what I ate; and never to overeat because of guilt about overeating. I applied the discipline I had learned from abstinence to other areas of my life and was quite successful. My new job was the best I had ever had. I learned sports and tried my hand at new hobbies such as dressmaking. Every relationship in my life bloomed. I never looked or felt better.
But something was missing. Toward the end of this period my weight began to climb until it reached 142 pounds. The new pants I had just made soon would not fit.
Back I came to OA, more desperate, less cocky, more willing. While I had been away I had given up my “tools.” I decided not to take them back. This time I would be forced to work the program instead of transferring my compulsions. This time, if I blew it, I knew it would be with food.
I began by attacking my self-serving deceptions.
I had no metabolism problem. My glands worked just as well at one weight as another.
I couldn’t blame heredity. True, my mother and sisters were compulsive overeaters, but my father always ate moderately and kept his normal weight.
I couldn’t blame my attitudes toward food on my conditioning. My mother had served large portions and insisted that I finish them. But millions of youngsters are given too much to eat and are urged to finish it because “wasting food is a sin,” yet they do not wind up gorging themselves. It was true that it pleased my mother to see me enjoy her cooking. But I rebelled against her authority in other ways constantly and felt no compunction about not pleasing her.
It had not been my parents who told me to devour my lunch on the way to school, to steal candy from neighbors, to take nickels from my mother’s purse for candy bars. They told me candy was junk and stealing was wrong.
I could not blame lack of parental love either. I assumed guilt by association when my mother told me that my birth coincided with her goiter operation, which left an ugly scar. I believed myself rejected when my father said that before my birth he was fearful about the Depression and really didn’t want another child. I took up martyrdom because my parents gave me approval only when I was polite and obedient, and they seemed unable to accept my feelings.
But I came to realize that most people are raised with conditional love; that nearly everyone is sometimes made to feel inferior by his parents; that many men and women lack self-worth. But they do not become overeaters. While I cleared my head of these old tapes, I had to abstain.
I could not blame my compulsion on the burdens I had grown up with. I was born with some physical abnormalities. My mother and sister were psychotic. My brother was mentally retarded. My father deserted his family when I was twelve, and we were destitute. We lived in a slum where violence was commonplace. Food was my bit of sweetness in such misery.
But I have learned to live with each of these facts and I have grown stronger because of them. Others have just as much to contend with and they do not choose to eat over it. Living in the past, bemoaning my fate is just a way to justify my eating.
I have learned to see myself as one of God’s children, neither the best nor the worst. I know I have talent, intelligence and ability, and I have had many fine accomplishments. But my self-worth is not validated by any of these. I can love and accept my weaknesses as well as my strengths because they are part of me. I make many mistakes as I reach toward growth, but I no longer expect perfection from myself or anyone else.
Despite this acceptance, I am still tempted at times to kill myself by overeating. My loving self has to work a very tough program to prevent my destroying self from taking over.
I have learned to value more of the simple things, such as the sheer joy of being alive. My happiness depends on my attitude, not on circumstances. Whether I am a compulsive overeater or not, life presents daily problems; how happy I want to be while dealing with them is up to me.
I know now that my immature personality was the root of my problem and that growing up was the solution. I learned to accept my feelings and to take responsibility for channeling them constructively. I went through the steps. I became more patient, compassionate and honest. The changes in me brought loving responses from those around me. My weight dropped to 105 pounds.
But I had more to learn. It was painful to realize that my feelings were not the cause of my eating. I had gone through temper tantrums, guilt, loneliness, resentment, fear — many negative emotions — all my life. I overate not because of the feelings, but because I was food-obsessed and I gave myself license to overeat by producing the negative emotions. In other words, I made myself upset so that I had an excuse to overeat.
I may never be emotionally mature. This is an endless journey. But while I travel on it, I cannot use my lack of maturity to justify my eating. Emotional and physical binges are no longer substitutes for action.
I see now that the alternative to abstinence, for me, is suicide. I am no longer able to tell myself lies to excuse binges. In order to abstain, I keep these things in mind: 1.1 believe, for today, that I must compensate for my lack of food brakes by maintaining those disciplines that enable me to be moderate. 2. For me, one bite of certain carbohydrates is suicide, fast or slow, because I lack psychosomatic immunity to them. 3.1 cannot indulge in negativity, because it blocks out my program awareness. Self-pity is a luxury I cannot afford because it causes amnesia, and I revert to old habits. 4. My primary responsibility is to abstain. All roles — wife, mother, friend, employee — come second. If abstinence is not first, I will lose it. Everything that interferes with it must go. 5.1 never have it made. My compulsion never goes away; it waits for me to become careless or cocky. 6. The OA program at its toughest is better than binging. Life at its dreariest or scariest is better than death by overeating.
I am continuing to discard more lies. I have the love of OA friends and my family in making this painful, joyous journey. I am grateful because I know that getting rid of deceptions makes me freer to see the ones that still blind me, still bind me.
*16/245/2*

Nexium (Esomeprazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Nexium(Esomeprazole)
OVEREATERS ANONYMOUS: THE KEYS TO FREEDOM
My story is a simple one. As I listen in meetings I find how much alike I am to others. This comes as a surprise because for many years I felt I was different.
My first memory is of being given food to make me feel better, and I was quite happy to get it. I taught myself to cook at an early age because my mother worked fulltime and it was the only way I could get what I wanted. I badgered my parents when they wouldn’t supply me, and I stole food whenever I thought I could get away with it. I had to work hard to maintain my compulsive overeating.
Because I was obese, I was teased as a child and I withdrew from people. As an only child, I found it relatively easy to become a recluse. I lived in a world of my own in which imaginary friends and television were my only companions.
In the real world I was a battered child. My parents both worked and they had turned my care over to a maid. This woman would beat me at unpredictable times. I never told my parents because I felt that I deserved to be punished. My parents were having trouble at the time and they often had long, bitter arguments. In my child’s mind I believed these problems were my fault, so I took the beatings by the maid as a kind of penitence for all the trouble I thought I was causing.
My parents thought my bruises were the result of normal childhood accidents. When they discovered the truth, they fired the maid. But three years of physical abuse left quite an impression on me.
My self-concepts were seriously out of line. I remember when I was nine years old I went to see a great uncle whom I had never met. When he saw me, he picked me up and threw me into the air. I thought he was either God or Superman. I couldn’t believe that anyone could do that. I thought I was so large, I was immovable. Like my great uncle, Overeaters Anonymous has lifted me up when I thought I was beyond help.
When I was thirteen, my parents decided it wasn’t baby fat anymore and took me to a doctor for a diet. Having gotten into trouble at school, I was also taken to a psychiatrist. I lost 30 pounds on the doctor’s diet by simply not eating. However, I soon became ill and I had to eat in order to get well. I gained all the weight back — and more. I didn’t think much of the diet, but I loved the cure.
The psychiatrist was just about as successful. I sat for six years in silence in her office. I trusted no one, yet I wanted desperately for her to help me. She kept telling my parents that since I refused to talk I didn’t have to go back, but I continued to return. I didn’t have anyplace else to go.
When I was fifteen my father, whom I worshipped, had a nervous breakdown. He had entered the hospital a relatively young man of forty and came out three months later with gray hair, walking with a cane and looking like a man twenty years older. I grieved for him. For an entire summer I stayed in the house, going from my bedroom to the kitchen. The only time I went out was to visit the psychiatrist. My weight shot up dramatically.
The psychiatrist suggested that I would be better off somewhere else, so I went to live with my aunt and uncle. I wanted to change, but I didn’t know how. My way was to go on a diet. I didn’t know how much I weighed because I refused to get on a scale. After dieting for some time, I did weigh myself and found the scale registering 212. I lost another 55 pounds, but I made no other change in myself so the weight didn’t stay off.
The remainder of my high school years were filled with depression and self-imposed loneliness. I learned to live one day at a time in a negative sense. I dragged myself through each day living only for the time I could eat. During this period I came very close to committing suicide.
When I went to college, I tried to get out and be with people. I went to a girls’ school and found that everybody was dieting. I made friends by going on whatever diet the other girls happened to be on. Eventually, I even began dating.
I have learned since coming to OA that whatever we turn to in times of trouble is our higher power. I turned to food and when food didn’t help, I turned to diets. If food wouldn’t make things better, then being thin would. In college I began to diet compulsively. My weight went down, but it never stayed down for long. I wanted desperately to be like everybody else but I felt that I was so different it was impossible. I thought if I were married, I would be normal. I wanted people to do for me what I could not do for myself.
In my senior year in college, I was faced with the prospect of going out on my own. I met a man who was willing to marry me and within a year of that marriage I had gone up over 200 pounds and I had become a battered wife. I accepted this as a fate I deserved.
My husband hated my obesity, and I hated myself. I was not a pleasant person to be with. I tried dieting with and without pills. Nothing worked. Once, in pastoral counseling, I lost 75 pounds. But the counseling ended, and the diet wore out. Within six months I had regained all the weight.
I joined a commercial diet club and became a compulsive weight watcher. If the club didn’t have an opinion on a topic, I didn’t either. I lost the weight again over a period of two years. Finally I left because I felt there had to be more to life than weighing in every week.
My weight began to climb again. I knew I needed help but everything had failed. I had read about OA in Ann Landers’ column. I believed in two things: food and Ann Landers. She had said that OA worked, so I decided to try it. There was one problem, however. I didn’t know where OA was. I decided that if I ever stumbled over OA or if it ever fell on top of me, I would look into it.
A couple of months later I heard a spot announcement for OA on the radio, but I took no action. I waited a week before I called the radio station. “You don’t still have the telephone number for Overeaters Anonymous, do you?” I asked. They did.
At my first meeting, I decided I didn’t want to get mixed up with a bunch of religious fanatics. All I wanted was a diet and I didn’t see how God could help there. However, I believed in Ann Landers, so I kept coming back.
I thought it would be enough just to attend meetings. I tried to play my old game which was to sit and say nothing. The people made no demands on me, though they seemed to care and some even telephoned me. However, I had a secret. They were the compulsive overeaters, not I. I knew how to lose weight. All I needed was a little group support.
For nine months I attended meetings and gained 35 pounds. I kept waiting for something to happen that would make me not want to eat anymore. It didn’t. We were a small group and since I always came back, I was asked to get involved in service. That kept me coming back when I lost faith in Ann Landers. I also listened. I began to see that the people who were trying to make the steps a part of their lives were changing and good things were happening to them. I wanted that, too.
The insanity of my disease was evident to everyone but me. My life was in shambles. I had gained weight while attending meetings regularly, and I had no reason to believe that it would stop. I hated my job. I teach, and my students were noticing my weight gain. My marriage was not bliss, either. Yet I thought all I needed was a diet!
I went back to the doctor, who made it clear that he could offer me nothing new. I even returned to the diet club, but I could not sit through the lectures. In desperation, I went back into therapy. After a binge, I told the therapist about it and wanted to know what she was going to do about it. To my amazement, she said she didn’t have any magic cures and that if I were truly a compulsive overeater I’d better get back to OA and do exactly what they told me.
I had no choices left. I made a decision to test the program. I challenged this Higher Power to get me through a day of abstinence. I lived through the day and nobody was more surprised than I was. That evening I went to a meeting and the speaker said, “When all else fails, follow directions.” The directions were to get a sponsor, read the literature, use the telephone, act “as if,” and use the steps. I got a sponsor at the end of the meeting and by the grace of God I have been abstinent from that time to this — a period of five years. I lost the 40 pounds I needed to lose the first year and I have been maintaining my normal weight since then. Before the program I never kept weight off for more than three days.
My progress has been slow. For the first few months the food plan was my higher power. However, I began to turn small things over. When I had done everything I could and felt nothing worse could happen, I would turn the problem over without regard to who or what would take it. To my amazement, every time I did this something good followed. My belief that a Higher Power — God — could help me came slowly but it came.
Step three came when, in an effort to help someone else, I memorized the third-step prayer on page 63 in the Big Book. I didn’t understand it or even believe it at first, but I repeated it daily. Finally, after being abstinent for almost a year, I could feel the surrender and it was beautiful. The longer I am in the program the more the impact of this prayer grows and deepens within me. For the first time in my life I am free to deal with life without having to resort to the indignity of using food to get me through.
I continued in therapy, and for the first time it was working. The therapy helped me to be open to OA, and OA helped me to be open to therapy. After a year and a half of abstinence, I took my fourth and fifth steps with my therapist. Much to my surprise (and disappointment) she didn’t turn green or faint. From this, I was able to go to people in OA and share.
I became willing to have my defects of character removed. These defects were comfortable and I hung onto them dearly. I never knew it was OK to be happy. Someone had to tell me. The old comfortable, familiar pain has gradually given way to peace. I am not perfect, but I have been granted the gifts of change and growth. I know now that with the help of my Higher Power I am no longer locked into a prison of unhappy ways. The program has given me the keys to freedom.
I have learned two important things. One is that life may bring pleasure or it may bring pain, but the program has given me the tools to deal with whatever comes. I have also learned that life is to be enjoyed. I spend time in meetings and doing twelfth-step work which brings me both peace and joy. I am also able to go out into the world and be at peace there, too.
*15/245/2*

Prilosec (Omeprazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Prilosec(Omeprazole)
Other names: Prinivil
DIET THERAPY FOR PEOPLE WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES: FOOD TOLERANCE
Many people believe that certain foods cause discomfort such as heartburn, abdominal distention, and flatulence. Among foods commonly cited are strongly flavored vegetables that contain sulfur compounds – broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, leeks, onions, radishes, and turnips; melons; and dry beans. Tolerance to these foods is highly individual, and one person may eat onions with relish and no subsequent problems, while another experiences discomfort after eating even a small quantity. Therefore, these foods should not be arbitrarily excluded for all patients, but should be allowed according to individual tolerance.
Patients with gastrointestinal disturbances are often nervous, anxious, overly concerned about their work, and tense. Their emotions strongly influence the digestion of foods. They also have many preconceived ideas about foods that they have heard from relatives or friends. Perhaps in no disease condition is individualization of diet more important than it is for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, some firmness is often necessary to emphasize the need for nutritional adequacy.
Rapid eating, incomplete mastication, and failure to rest are frequently noted in these patients. They need to learn to take time for meals, to eat slowly, to relax before and after meals, and to look for diversions that can relieve the pressures and anxieties.
*2/234/5*

Stugil (Cinnarizine, Domperidone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
SIMPLE REDUCING DIET
Breakfast
Start with a small glass of unsweetened orange juice or grapefruit juice (120 ml, 4 fl. oz). Follow with a cereal such as corn, wheat or oat flakes; measure this out as f cup (180 ml, 6 fl. oz), and add the same amount of skimmed milk (sugar is not permitted). Twice a week, have a boiled or poached egg instead of the cereal. A small piece of white fish (steamed or grilled) is another alternative.
Have one thin slice of whole-wheat bread or toast (an option is one small roll, two pieces of crisp-bread or a piece of matzo). As a spread use a polyunsaturated margarine (5 g, 1 teaspoon), or peanut butter (2 teaspoons), or cottage cheese (5 teaspoons) or a yeast extract, such as Marmite.
End with tea or coffee, with skimmed milk (60 ml, 2 fl. oz) and with saccharin if required. Or have a cup of yeast extract or a meat extract such as Bovril.
Mid-morning
Tea or coffee, black or with skimmed milk (30 ml, 1 fl. oz).
Lunch
Start with clear soup (without noodles) or a half grapefruit. For a main dish choose chicken, turkey, veal or other lean meat, or a white fish, or (for a treat) lobster, crab or oysters; the helpings should be 120 g (4 oz) raw weight or 90 g (3 oz) when cooked. Have a generous helping of vegetables; the choice includes asparagus, broccoli, cabbage or red cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, courgette, French beans, runner beans, marrow, mushrooms, peppers, spinach, sprouts or tomatoes. Have a very small baked or boiled potato if you choose. (Vegetables must not be cooked in or garnished with butter or other fat.)
Finish with fruit: one small apple, apricot, orange, peach, plum or tangerine, or a half-grapefruit or small banana, or eight to ten grapes or strawberries (no sugar).
If you depend on a packed lunch, try two crisp-breads, a helping of cold meat as described, with lettuce, tomatoes, celery or radishes, and end with a plain yoghurt or a piece of fruit.
Afternoon
Tea or coffee with or without 30 ml (1 fl. oz) of skimmed milk.
Dinner
Begin with a half grapefruit, fresh or baked. Choose a main course from those suggested for lunch; or have a generous helping of cottage cheese (180 g, 6 oz, 3/4 cup). This may be accompanied by a variety of salads; use lemon juice, vinegar. Tabasco sauce and a little salt as a dressing. Then a helping of fruit as at lunch, and coffee with or without 30 ml (1 fl. oz) of skimmed milk.
Late evening
If you feel like it, have one piece of bread or toast or two of crisp-bread, with one teaspoon of polyunsaturated margarine. Have a cup of tea with 1 fl. oz skimmed milk.
If your weight loss is too slow, reduce your food intake by the following:
Breakfast: omit either the cereal or the bread.
Lunch: do without the potato.
Late evening: leave out the snack, and have one of the ultra-low-energy items listed above.
Some suggested treatments are unproven, ill-advised or even dangerous. Thyroid hormone in large doses causes loss of weight even in people with normal thyroid glands, but at the risk of abnormal heart rhythm, thinning of bones, and rebound obesity at the end of the treatment. Diuretic drugs reduce weight by causing loss of water and salt, not of fat; there is little point in becoming a dehydrated fat person, and there are risks of causing diabetes and gout, and of deficiency of potassium which can harm the heart. The hormone chorionic gonadotrophin seems relatively safe, but some trials have shown it to be no better at causing weight loss than a far cheaper injection of water! The group of drugs called anorectics does decrease appetite for the first few weeks of their use, and are occasionally helpful: all of these have one or other side effect, even the most recent which can cause dizziness and diarrhea. Unusual diets have been proposed by the score: low in carbohydrate, rich in eggs and the like. None is supported by sound scientific evidence. There is no need to have the double difficulty of following an abnormal diet as well as a restricted one.
A few words are needed about really severe obesity, about the unfortunate person who became obese early in life, is now 50 to 100 per cent overweight, and has had repeated cycles of weight reduction and relapse. Some people like this, if really motivated to lose weight, can be greatly helped by operations which have the effect of decreasing appetite and of limiting the absorption of food.
Lastly, remember Samuel Johnson: ‘It is plain that if a man is too fat, he has eaten more than he should have done.’ Unsympathetic but true.
*8/202/5*

Motilium (Domperidone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Motilium(Domperidone)
OVEREATERS ANONYMOUS: FAT IS NOT MY DESTINY
Food was a family affair. My brothers and I were ? born in the years following World War II and we were caught up in the race for affluence and security one symbol of which was unlimited food. Any occasion called for a feast: birthdays, holidays, vacations, Sunday excursions, births, deaths, weddings, reunions. Once the basic overeating pattern was established, I elaborated on it. No matter where I went to school there was always a store or pastry shop or candy counter I could patronize, and I resorted to stealing nickels and dimes and quarters from my father’s change box to supplement my inadequate allowance.
At home I ate anything I could get my hands on, straight from the box, can or jar, cooked or uncooked, baked or unbaked; it made no difference. I had no discriminating tastes. Canned spaghetti tasted as delicious to me as any treasured Italian family recipe. I couldn’t even appreciate my German grandmother’s baking as any better than Sara Lee’s. I lost babysitting jobs because I ate everything except the baby.
My compulsive overeating may have had something to do with my older brother’s chronic illness. He spent his entire childhood in and out of hospitals and my parents were preoccupied with his health. Just as his disease was brought under control and I was struggling through adolescence, my younger brother developed schizophrenia, and my parents’ concern shifted to him. Somehow, in the midst of all this, food became my reward and punishment, love and companionship.
By the time I was in high school, I weighed 150 pounds, a weight below which I have never fallen in my adult life. I carried it well — in the same place a barrel does — and the straight skirts, tucked-in blouses and belted shirtwaists then in fashion made it impossible to disguise.
I never dated, and I quickly resigned myself to cutting remarks and snickers when my stomach growled in class. I eventually kept mostly to myself to avoid getting hurt, and I convinced myself that this was the way I wanted it.
After graduating from college, I became a high school librarian in a small school. I moved in with two college friends who were also teaching there and was ready to believe I had it made for the rest of my life. During the second year, reality set in and teaching became a serious business. Soon it deteriorated into a battle. My first major disappointment was the realization that I was not going to make it in the profession. I didn’t see the pattern building until it was too late, but that failure made me resentful and angry. I was angry at the kids because in spite of my best efforts to direct and control their lives, they failed me and that reflected on me. I was angry at the principal, whom I considered incompetent; I was angry at the other teachers who seemed successful; I was angry at my parents because I believed they had pressured me into teaching; and I was angry at myself for letting things get out of control, including my weight which had gone up 38 pounds in four years.
I fought it every way I could, from letters to Dear Abby to psychiatric counseling, from memberships in health spas and diet clubs to books on losing weight. Nothing worked. Everything emphasized food. I was still looking forward to eleven o’clock for the celery sticks, counting the minutes until I could eat the apple I had saved from lunch, planning menus and substitutions that read like computer printouts. As an example of my obsessiveness, I had by that time collected forty-three cookbooks and nine shoeboxes of clipped recipes. (You won’t find this food emphasis in OA. The emphasis is on you and me and us as people, not on food.)
The amazing thing about this most important time in my life is that through it all I never even knew I was angry. I mean, after all, everybody else was failing me; it was their fault, not mine. Lord knows I was trying. Outwardly, I was controlled, calm, in command. Inwardly, the growing anger was eating me up and I was trying to stop it with food.
It was inevitable that a crisis would occur with such pressures building, and in my fifth and final year of teaching it did. I almost killed a student in one blinding moment of anger that broke through. In February of that year, I was on hall duty and enduring the usual hassles that go with the job. That particular day Tommy Troublemaker chose to make himself unbearable. I had just shooed him down the stairs for the third time, then stepped into a teacher’s room. She was the play director and she showed me some of the props her people had been collecting, one of which was a heavy iron crowbar. I was standing by her desk talking, my hand on that crowbar, when Tommy sauntered through the door with some smart remark. In a flash of anger, my hand closed around the crowbar and raised it. Had the teacher not grabbed my wrist, I probably would have taken Tommy’s head off, although I can’t be sure of that.
I laid the crowbar back on the desk and went to the superintendent’s office, where I wrote out my resignation on the back of a lunch menu and turned it in. For the three months remaining in the school year, that woman and two other good friends ran interference for me, and there were no further incidents. But I lived in fear of what might happen and in agony over what I had found out about myself.
When school was over, I moved out of the state with the sole intention of vegetating for a year and bringing myself and my weight under control. Actually, I wasn’t moving to a place so much as I was moving away from people and things. Among them was a man who wanted to marry me; I thought there must be something wrong with him if he could love me.
The most joyous discovery I made upon my arrival in my new community was supermarkets that were open twenty-four hours a day I spent my first three weeks eating and watching television, crying, depressed. I never got dressed except to go out and buy food. For the first time in my life I knew what real loneliness was.
I began going to OA meetings soon after I got settled, but my first weeks with the program were exasperating. I was disagreeable, hostile and resentful that I had to be there at all. But mostly I was frightened that if I tried to follow the program and failed there was nothing left. Also, I am agnostic and my first impression was that I had happened upon a group of evangelists who would attempt to convince me that nothing could happen until I accepted their God.
They quickly disproved that. Once I stopped looking for flaws and began listening in earnest, I was able to find a higher power that works for me. My higher power is the group, the people, my friends.<�неиAbstinence and weight loss came only after I accepted the fact that this program is something I cannot manage alone; I need all the help I can get, and there’s no shame in that.
Many other physical symptoms of overeating have disappeared. Gone are dry skin, joint pains, sinusitis, headaches. I’m off thyroid after twenty-two years. I can cross my legs under a table without causing a commotion. My knee socks come up to my knees now. These are measurements that make me feel good about myself
Emotionally I am freer, and spiritually I am at peace with myself and with my higher power. The quality of my life is improving every day.
My salvation, if you will, came with the realization that being fat is not in my mind or my destiny, but is rather a symptom of a disease, compulsive overeating. Thanks to an incident that occurred during my first year in the program, I know that compulsive overeating is controllable, but not curable.
On that particular occasion, shortly before Christmas, I led an OA meeting during which I told the group that I was to be married — to the same man I had moved away from. I was feeling worthy for the first time in my life — open and loving. I flew to my parents’ home the next day for a long weekend and felt very proud of the way I resisted temptation and handled my food while there, because Christmas at home is a feast from beginning to end. I also dealt with my family’s rather hostile reaction to my marriage plans in what I considered a calm, adult manner. I even smiled benignly during all the hassles of holiday travel and returned home ready to begin a new year.
The next day I went to work and someone opened a box of chocolates. Within two hours I had eaten the entire thing, and it was supposed to have been shared among five people. I didn’t feel the least bit guilty about it. After work, I drove to a mall and bought my favorite binge foods. As an example of the extremes to which compulsive overeaters are driven, I was too ashamed to eat these things in public and couldn’t wait to get home, so in nine-degree weather in a car with no heat, I sat in the parking lot and ate the stuff with my gloves on and darn near froze to death.
Then I realized that within a short span of time, I was back to square one and doing the disgusting, revolting things I hated, and what was there to eat about anyway? I was happier than I had ever been in my life. I was to be married to someone I loved very much. My work was going well. I got A’s in my semester course work. I had many friends. My future was bright. Why did I feel the need to punish myself this way?<�неиI had no answer. I still don’t, but that’s not what matters. What matters is that I started the car and got to an OA meeting where I shared what I had just done.
OA people don’t judge or react with horror when they hear something like that. They listen, they talk, they suggest readings, they call me later to see how I’m doing, they stop in the middle of their day when I call to talk. With this help and encouragement, I was able to break the vicious rationalization that because I did it once, another time won’t hurt, or I’ll wait until January 1st and start all over again. I started again right then, and although the compulsive feeling didn’t leave me for days, I didn’t eat about it. And soon I was OK.
But I got a good dose of humility which I badly needed, and the complacency I was beginning to feel was gone permanently. I know now that this job is never done. But I take it a day at a time, twelve hours at a time, sometimes fifteen minutes at a time, and that’s the way I win.
*17/245/2*

Zantac

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: PEPTIC ULCER
Clinical findings
A peptic ulcer is an erosion of the gastrointestinal mucosa. It may be found in the esophagus, stomach, and most often in the duodenum. Pain is caused by contact of the hydrochloric acid with the eroded surface. The pain is described as dull, gnawing, burning, or even piercing. The patient with a peptic ulcer is often anxious, tense, emotional, and one who strives for perfection in whatever he does. Usually there is increased secretion of gastric juice and increased motility. Many patients who have restricted their intake to relatively few foods have low blood proteins, anemia, and weight loss.
Treatment
The objective of treatment is to heal the ulcer. Physical and mental rests are crucial not only during the acute illness but subsequent to full healing. Most patients require some guidance in modifying their life style so that there is less stress both at home and at work.
The physician prescribes one or more of these drugs: antacids to neutralize acid; anti-cholinergic agents to reduce acid secretion; and antispasmodics to reduce motility. Antacids interfere with iron absorption, and iron supplements may be prescribed to correct or prevent anemia.
The objectives of dietary management are to maintain good nutrition; to supply the nutrients needed to heal the ulcer, protein and ascorbic acid being especially important; and to provide foods that give the patient satisfaction and comfort.
*3/234/5*

Propulsid (Cisapride)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT DIETING
My sister-in-law has been on a diet for two months, lost fifteen pounds, and swears that she has eaten pasta every day. Could this be possible?
Absolutely. There are only 200 calories in a cup of pasta (providing it’s not drenched in butter) and these burn slowly, giving a dieter lasting energy – along with protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and quite a few important В vitamins. The right carbohydrates at the right time can be a dieter’s best friends.
You seem to be opposed to low-carbohydrate diets. Could you tell me why? Every time I’ve gone on one I’ve lost weight.
But have you kept that weight off? Obviously not. The reason most people feel that low-carbohydrate diets work is because they alter your mineral metabolism and bring about a quick loss of body water. Sure, it looks great on the scale, but this sort of dehydration is short-lived and takes its toll on energy levels. I’m not opposed to low-carbohydrate diets if the carbohydrates being cut out are those that shouldn’t be included in the first place – refined sugars, junk foods, and so on. It’s those guys that have given carbohydrates a bad name.
What’s so bad about taking diet drugs to help you reduce?
Aside from such possible side effects as insomnia, constipation (or diarrhea), dizziness, elevated blood pressure, heart palpitations, cerebral hemorrhage, seizures, and addiction, it’s been shown that people taking these drugs regain weight much more quickly than those who diet without them. Though you might lose more weight initially with an appetite suppressant, the odds of trimming down in the long run are against you. Changing your eating habits and selecting the right foods are what you need to really shape up.
Dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is essentially a metabolic process that occurs after meals and increases the body’s rate of burning calories. (Exercising a few hours after eating – not right after – will help you lose weight because calories are burned faster than on an empty stomach.)
It’s not certain what triggers DIT, but it is known that carbohydrates are important to the process and lead to less storage of fat than the same amount of protein calories consumed. So, if you want to slim down, think twice about passing over the bun for the burger. Recent studies indicate that favouring meat over whole grains could substantially contribute to obesity.
I chew a lot of sugarless gum to keep my weight down. I know that gum doesn’t contain saccharin, but it does have other artificial sweeteners. How safe are these?
Most sugarless gums and dietetic sweets use mannitol and sorbitol as sweeteners. (These are absorbed slowly by the body, much like carbohydrates, and therefore have little effect on blood sugar levels.) As far as safety goes, neither of these sweeteners has been implicated as a carcinogen. On the other hand, both mannitol and sorbitol have been found to produce gas, bloating, cramps, and diarrhea.
*10/137/5*

Tagamet (Cimetidine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Tagamet(Cimetidine)
DIABETES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR HEART ATTACK
Diabetes is a common condition. In all of its types, the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too high. This may be continuous or may occur only after eating. Diabetes was once a grave disease and diabetics seldom survived more than five years after the diagnosis was made before dying in a coma. In 1922, however, the hormone insulin was first used successfully to treat diabetes and today diabetic coma can be prevented or regulated by insulin. Another hazard for diabetics, tuberculosis, has now largely been conquered; so their life span has been greatly improved.
But diabetics are still prone to disease of the arteries and nerves, and we shall now consider current ideas as to how these risks may be minimized.
It is not possible to say just how common diabetes is, because -as with blood pressure and cholesterol levels – the obviously normal part of the population merges gradually with the obviously diabetic part. By measuring blood-glucose levels it seems that some 2 per cent of us are clearly diabetic, and another 10 per cent are on the borderline. The condition becomes commoner with advancing age, being perhaps ten times more frequent in the over-seventies than in young adults. Some groups are more prone than others, for example South Africans of Indian extraction, and certain indigenous American tribes.
At all ages, diabetes increases the risk of heart attack. The risk of certain forms of stroke is also greater. Diabetics studied in Framingham had about double the risk of these conditions, and about a fourfold increase in the chance of developing symptoms of atherosclerosis in the legs (e.g. intermittent claudication). The heart-attack risk is due (wholly or partly) to severe atherosclerosis: this is evident from the work of Dr Henry McGill, who compared the coronary arteries in a large number of diabetics and non-diabetics.
These problems in diabetics can partly be blamed on other risk factors to which diabetics are prone. For unknown reasons high blood pressure is common in diabetics; and triglyceride levels are often high. In the majority these levels are reduced by conventional treatment of the diabetes. Diabetics are also often obese. Diabetics tend to have too little HDL, the substance which appears to reduce the risk of heart attack. When diabetes is treated HDL levels improve.
There is another form of arterial narrowing in diabetics, affecting the fine arteries; it is this which can harm the kidney and eye, as well as contributing to the more familiar forms of cardiovascular disease. Diabetic animals accumulate a sugar-like substance, sorbitol, in the eye, kidney and nerves, and this may be responsible for some of the ill-effects. This is a hopeful possibility, for insulin treatment of diabetic animals restores their handling of sorbitol to normal; presumably this is also true in man. Recent studies on animals (summarized in a report by Dr Crofford) have made it clear that insulin treatment lessens the ill-effects of diabetes on the eyes, kidneys and nerves.
*9/202/5*

Carafate (Sucralfate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Carafate(Sucralfate)
DISEASES OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: DIVERTICULITIS
Diverticulosis is the presence of tiny sacs or pouches in the intestinal wall, most often in the colon. The diverticuli become filled with food wastes and bacteria, but produce no symptoms until they become infected and inflamed (diverticulitis). Once inflamed, severe pain and even perforation may occur.
Long continued use of low-fiber diets is believed to contribute to the development of diverticuli. The swallowing of air together with the gases resulting from the overproduction of bacteria in the intestines leads to increased gas pressure. Diets that are low in fiber cause the colon to contract more tightly; this further increases the gas pressure. The walls of the colon then bulge out to form the diverticulum.
Treatment
During the acute stage bed rest, antibiotics, and a clear-liquid diet followed by a very low-residue diet are prescribed. Surgery is sometimes indicated.
The second stage in dietary management is a gradual increase in fiber content until a high-fiber intake is achieved. Patients are likely to be fearful of increasing their fiber intake because they may have been told that a low-fiber diet is essential to treatment. They need to understand that a high-fiber intake results in lowering the pressure that builds up in the colon, that fiber increases the bulk of the stool, that there is a shorter time for food wastes and bacterial growth to accumulate, and that elimination is improved. Some persons experience flatulence at first, but this is not cause for discontinuing the diet. The adjustment is more readily made if fiber intake is increased over a period of weeks. For example, the patient might modify his diet only by adding a tablespoon of bran to his breakfast cereal; a few days to a week later he might add a second tablespoon or so on.
Very low-residue diet
This diet is designed to furnish a minimum of fiber and also lead to a minimum of residue in the intestinal tract. The diet allows tender meats, poultry, fish, eggs, white bread, macaroni, noodles, simple desserts, clear soups, tea, and coffee. It omits all fruits, fruit juices, vegetables, and usually milk. Such a diet is obviously lacking in calcium, iron, and vitamins, and should be used for only a few days. A typical menu follows:
Breakfast Luncheon Dinner
Cream of wheat Tomato bouillon Small club steak
Milk for cereal Crackers Baked potato without skin;
Sugar Roast chicken butter
Soft-cooked egg Buttered rice Roll with butter
White toast White bread or roll Whipped raspberry gelatin
Butter Butter or margarine Plain sugar cookies
Coffee White cake with icing Tea with lemon and sugar
Tea with lemon and sugar
*6/234/5*

Pepcid (Famotidine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Pepcid(Famotidine)
OVEREATERS ANONYMOUS: IT RAN IN THE FAMILY
When I was seven, my mother nearly died and I, the oldest of three children, was “farmed out” for most of one school year. Until that time, I had been a thin, asthmatic child who didn’t care about food. During my mother’s illness I stayed with three different families and I gained so much weight that when I came back home my family nicknamed me “Butterball.”
I was brought up in a rural part of the Midwest that never really shook off the Depression. Bible Belt Baptists, my family on both sides could be divided into two groups: grossly overweight women who were compulsive overeaters and skinny men who were alcoholics. Naturally, I identified with the women, especially my big, diabetic grandmother whose fate I always believed I would share.
I never felt close to my mother, who couldn’t show love and was constantly critical, but at thirteen I made friends with a fine, loving neighbor woman who gave me my first real feeling of acceptance. Like my relatives, she was obese.
Throughout my years at home, my mother forced me to go on unpalatable or bizarre diets to keep my weight down. I was a size 14 or 16 during most of my teen years, but she made me feel so ugly and fat that in my mind there was no difference between that size and the IbVi I was ultimately to become.
In college, I was able to keep my weight at a reasonable level until my senior year, when I had my first sexual experiences. This triggered an anxiety reaction and I went up to 180 pounds in a few months. That weight seemed the end of the world to me and, for the first time, I went on a diet voluntarily. Meantime, I stopped dating and the weight came off easily.
The next year I went to graduate school in the east. I was desperately lonely because I didn’t fit in with the sophistication, and I became rather promiscuous. In one school year I went from a size 14 to a 20Vi. That was the beginning of years of misery, because I never again got below that size and never again felt like a normal person until I got to Overeaters Anonymous at age thirty-five.
The intervening years were marked by depression, self-hatred and the steady upward toll of pounds. I was in therapy for depression for at least ten years, always thinking I ate because I was depressed, not admitting to myself that the reverse was true: I was depressed because I ate. I ate on the way to therapy and I ate after therapy, and hardly ever talked about my weight or the food with any of my therapists. I would only talk about it when I was dieting, just as the only time I ever got on the scale was when I had been dieting for at least two weeks. Denial was my big defense.
The diets I tried were the same ones everyone tries. I even had a staple in my ear once, put there by an osteopath “acupuncturist” who told me to wiggle my ear anytime I wanted to eat. Most of the time I wiggled after I ate, so it didn’t do any good. I never tried diet pills. I considered myself too good and pure and drug-free for that, so I just kept on drugging myself daily with sugar and gaining more weight.
I could lose 40 pounds in six weeks anytime I chose, but since that was inevitably followed by a 50-pound gain in a few months’ time, I gradually gave up dieting altogether. I had become interested in astrology and I convinced myself that my chart showed I was doomed to a lifetime of obesity.
On the surface, my life was successful. I lived in a lovely house, I was dating a beautiful, sensitive man who loved me, and I had my first book in the process of publication. I had finally arranged my career so that I could work at home most of the time, as I had always wanted to do. But I was binging and gaining weight, and when I topped 280, I wanted to kill myself.
The last straw — or perhaps the first step toward OA — was another look at my astrology chart. It was all set up for a repeat of the conditions that had coincided with a 100-pound weight gain twelve years earlier. I was within binging distance of 300 pounds.
I started a last-ditch effort at dieting. I threatened myself that if it didn’t work I’d have to go to Overeaters Anonymous which a friend had told me about. Strangely enough, though I loved Alcoholics Anonymous (a close friend is a recovering alcoholic and he had taken me to a few meetings), OA sounded grim. I had been impressed with AA and had even begun to absorb some of the philosophy; still, I was sure OA couldn’t do me any good.
Having flopped miserably at my “last ditch” diet, I binged my way through one last holiday season. Early in January, I dragged myself through a snowstorm to my first OA meeting.
I was not one of those people who achieve instant abstinence. My emotional reaction in those first few weeks was like unleashing a cyclone of pain. It meant facing all the feelings I used to eat to hide such as anger, loneliness, desire — and the way it feels to say yes to people when I really want and need to say no.
I stubbornly resisted taking a sponsor. The image of my controlling, dominating mother and her forced diets made my defiance very powerful on this point. I kept turning it over in meetings, as I was told, and gradually felt more at peace with it. It wasn’t until two months into the program, when I was approaching my usual 40-pound turnaround point, that I began to see I had to take a sponsor if I wanted to keep what the program was giving me. Finally, my Higher Power got impatient with my shillyshallying and moved a fine woman who had been watching my struggles to ask if I wanted her to sponsor me. I accepted fearfully — she seemed so forbiddingly strict — and within a week I had my abstinence!
I lost weight at a dizzying pace: 110 pounds and twelve sizes in nine months. The food was comfortable most of the time — more comfortable, I had to admit, than my new body and my new identity. As much as I had fantasized about becoming a normal-size person, I was terrified when it actually happened.
Passing from a size 18 to a 16 was a real crisis; it seemed to symbolize crossing the barrier between being a freaky, fat person and joining the human race. People would say, “You must be so happy,” and I couldn’t honestly say yes. For about a month, I was incredibly uptight, fearful and uncomfortable. I discovered I was afraid of men, and I also isolated myself emotionally from everyone — in program and out.
I handled this the same way I have handled each crisis I faced since joining OA. (Crises don’t stop just because I’m abstinent.) I work the program twice as hard. There isn’t a tool I don’t use. I go to more meetings and make sure I turn over exactly what’s bothering me. It helps. I listen at meetings as though my life depends on it — because it does. I especially listen to people with similar problems and I home in like a laser beam on people who have relapsed, because it can happen to me if I don’t learn from others’ mistakes. I make phone calls. I pray for guidance. I write out my feelings and then burn what I’ve written. It’s like burning old, self-defeating attitudes, and while they burn I pray that these attitudes will change. When I apply all aspects of the program to a crisis and trust that it is a phase rather than a life sentence, the crisis passes.
When the food thoughts come, I take them as feelings, not commands to be acted on. In fact, a little way into the program I learned that I forced food down when I didn’t even want it. I often ate when I was merely thirsty. I realized that sometimes when I was binging I didn’t even like the food; it became an enormous burden to consume it all. Now, I try to make mealtime serene and pleasant. I say a simple grace before each meal: “God, thank you for this beautiful food, and thank you that I don’t have to eat too much of it.”
I have become contented with my new body and my new identity. Now, when people say, “You must be so happy,” I practically sing out that I really am. I’m still startled when I see myself in a mirror or store window, and I can still be moved to tears by a medium size that fits. I no longer have the self-loathing that comes with feeling like a freak. The male attention I am getting amazes and pleases me. I have become used to all this, but I am not complacent; just comfortable and very grateful. I have a life to look forward to instead of a living death.
In a sense, the body changes, wonderful as they are, are superficial. The most important gift of the program is a way to deal with life. People who are compulsive have learned only one response to stress: for the alcoholic the response is drink; for the overeater it is food. Whatever the stress, we ate. It didn’t really help that much, but we didn’t know what else to do. Now I know what to do: I work my program, and it helps in a way food never did. Not only do I feel better for the moment, but my life gets better, too. It’s a wonderful feeling.
*14/245/2*

Aciphex (Rabeprazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Aciphex(Rabeprazole)
DIGESTION: SMALL INTESTINE
We speak of the small intestine as consisting of the duodenum at the top, the jejunum next, and the ileum at the bottom. Surgeons can tell the first two apart by a little fold of mesentery at their junction but the second and third merge into each other as indefinitely as do violet, indigo, and blue in the rainbow. The small intestine handles the major portion of digestion. Man can get along without his esophagus or his stomach, or his large intestine; but take away his small intestine and he is done for.
The bile from the liver and the gall bladder empties into the duodenum near its beginning, and at the same opening the pancreas contributes at least three kinds of digestive juices, which have been mentioned above. The lining of the intestine also furnishes a digestive fluid which is presumably a combination of a number of enzymes and is known as succus entericus. All these change the food so that it is ready to be carried to the body. That is digestion.
After fat is digested, the milky-appearing result is collected by small vessels, called because of these appearance lacteals, and goes into the thoracic duct. This vessel runs up through the chest and empties into a vein in the left side of the neck. All the rest of the digested material is taken by the blood through the portal system, and distributed to the liver. This portal system is a separate blood system and is not a part of the general system. It has been described further under circulation. It collects blood loaded with digested food from the intestine, and after running a very short course, discharges this blood into the liver. From then on, all the blood goes into the general circulation.
So far it would seem that the portal system was just an accessory to the digestive system. But man’s physical body does not conform to, or furnish an inspiration for, his highly artificial tendency toward the complete specialization shown in his social organization. Many organs have two or more functions. As the bones not only form our supporting framework but are important as the seat of manufacture of blood cells; as the skin is a garment, a thermostat, and furnishes much of our sensation; as the pancreas digests our food and also regulates the sugar in the body; and so on ad infinitum; so the portal vein also carries blood from the spleen to the liver.
*5/276/5*