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Neggram (Nalidixic Acid)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Neggram(NalidixicAcid)
ANGINA AND LONG-TERM RESPONSES TO STRESS
We have covered the main physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioural responses to stress. You will be able to identify one or more responses that you have experienced at some time.
These are all normal responses to stress on a continuum from mild to extreme. Someone who responded minimally to stress at one time may respond in an extreme way at a different time. The short-term mild responses may not be harmful at all but the long-term chronic stress responses can be catastrophic for some people.
We are all genetically programmed to develop certain illnesses under certain conditions favourable for that illness. What we don’t know is what illnesses, under which conditions, and for whom. Stress may act as a trigger for one or other of those illnesses, causing the body to identify its weak system and respond accordingly by showing signs of an illness. But because the symptoms of these illnesses may cause stress responses in themselves it is very difficult to know which came first, the stress or the illness.
There is sound research evidence to suggest that the way we behave (and therefore think and feel) can trigger coronary disease including hypertension, chronic pain, digestive ulcers and bowel disorders. There is some, albeit weak, evidence to suggest that stress may also be related to asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. This does not always imply that stress causes these diseases but we know that for some people stressful events can trigger an exacerbation or ‘flare-up’ of the illness. This is especially true in angina. Chronic stress can manifest itself as chronic back pain, headaches, unexplained fatigue in one’s limbs, undue disability from a physical illness, sexual problems and many other disorders.
Being labelled’ ill’ or ‘disabled’ can have detrimental effects on the way some people behave. Being told you have a chronic illness can have an effect on the way you think and feel about yourself also. For example, if someone has a mental picture of a person with a long-term illness as a passive, pathetic figure who cannot perform essential tasks, then this will cause them to lose respect for themselves and to see themselves as dependent and even a burden on others. This can lead to severely strained relationships within the family. They may also believe that having a chronic illness (such as angina) means they have to stop doing any physical work and retire to the armchair. By behaving in this excessively passive way (known as sick role behaviour) they let their fitness lapse, bringing on more angina and other aches and pains as the joints and muscles deteriorate from underuse. This may begin the downward spiral of sadness, debilitation and depression.
There is good research evidence to suggest that people may be more disabled by their thoughts and feelings about their illness and what it means to them than the actual extent of the illness warrants.
People who behave, think and feel in this way have very poor expectations from life. They often feel they are not worthy of help and successfully merge into becoming the disabled person they had the image of in their mind. Sometimes they become irritable through frustration and may be aggressive to others. Because they behave in this way they may isolate themselves from their family and friends and eventually find themselves receiving little support from others and become more dependent on strangers for assistance.
This behaviour can have an effect on the way others see the person too. The medical and social services often treat disabled people as passive, pathetic recipients who will accept any standards of care. This is not too surprising if this is how the person behaves and thinks of him/herself. So, once again a vicious circle is set up with people being more disabled than their physical condition necessitates because their thoughts, behaviour and feelings play a role in their ‘disability’.
Tom used to be the life and soul of the party. He was a keen fisherman and everyone who knew him enjoyed his company. When he was told he had angina Tom remembered how a good friend of his had died from a heart attack and he connected the two. He began to ‘take it easy’. He retired from work, gave up fishing, and things went from bad to worse. He became irritable and frustrated because he could not do what he used to do and because he missed the social contact with friends.
Arguments with his wife increased because, as she said, ‘He’s around the house, getting in the way, all day long’. He began to see himself as a burden and lost respect for himself. He became snappy to the grandchildren and eventually they stopped visiting.
After a year Tom had an angiogram which showed he had very mild coronary disease and he enrolled in the physical training classes. Slowly but surely he regained some physical fitness and the angina became less troublesome. He began to renew his friendships and took up fishing again.
Tom still cannot do all the things he would like to do but now he accepts it. He still believes he is a person to be respected and his friends and family enjoy the new, more relaxed Tom as much as the one before he had angina.
Now that we have covered most of the stress responses, fill in your answers to the stress questionnaire which follows and try to build up a picture of your predominant responses to stress. Knowing yourself is half the battle of changing. The next chapter will look in more detail at ways of controlling your stress responses.
*37/108/2*

Cardura (Doxazosin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cardura(Doxazosin)
CORONARY HEART DISEASE: CONTROLLING RISK FACTORS
Physical activity
As already explained, being physically active will help protect you against the progress of coronary heart disease in a number of ways. It can help lower your cholesterol and triglyceride levels, reduce your weight and your blood pressure and increase your HDL cholesterol level. Physical activity is also good for your general health. It is worthwhile, therefore, to find types of physical activity that you can continue to enjoy for the rest of your life. Being physically active should prolong your life and improve the quality of your life. Physical activity may be simple things like walking or doing normal household work or gardening.
Blood pressure
Patients who have coronary heart disease commonly have high blood pressure. Up to half the patients who have coronary artery bypass surgery have had some elevation of blood pressure before their operation and many of them are on treatment for it.
It is thought that the high pressure leads to greater wear and tear in the arteries, and accelerates the progress of the coronary artery disease. When you are in hospital, your blood pressure falls, and when you leave hospital it is usually lower than on admission. However, this does not last. As you recover from the operation, your blood pressure rises to its previous level.
The medical treatment you were taking before the operation is likely to have been stopped while you were in hospital. Therefore, your blood pressure needs to be checked for some time to note when it starts to rise.
The medication usually needs to be resumed after some weeks. Salt restriction which occurred in hospital will probably need to be continued as well, even though your blood pressure may be normal for a time.
*4/160/5*

Trandate (Labetalol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Trandate(Labetalol)
STRESS AND HEART DISEASE
Stress is a highly complex and personal matter. It has been shown to contribute to both heart attacks and angina, but because it is difficult to measure stress, to what extent it contributes is not known exactly. How it is linked to heart disease is discussed here, although the following chapters describe stress in more detail.
Stress and heart attack
When people who have experienced a heart attack are asked what they think the cause of it was, most people will implicate stress in some way. Research supports that some types of stress have been shown to be associated with an increased incidence of coronary disease. This is not the same as saying stress causes heart attacks, however. There are three main areas of stress which have connections with heart attacks. These are work stress, home stress and personal style.
Work stress
Changing jobs frequently has been linked with heart attacks, as has shift work and low activity at work. However, it is not just the negative aspects of work which are harmful. Positive events, such as a recent promotion, can also have effects.
Domestic stress
The most consistent type of home stress which is linked with heart disease is the loss of a partner, either through death or divorce. Also, many large changes such as moving job and home, perhaps the birth of a child and/or death of a close relative, if occurring together have been associated with heart attacks.
Personal style
There is now a good deal of evidence which links the way we behave with heart disease. Recently, research has shown that more people of a character called Type A are likely to have heart disease than those of another type, called Type B. Type A is the behaviour pattern or set of characteristics which include being preoccupied with time, constantly running to deadlines, being overcompetitive, being hostile and aggressive and having a strong sense of achievement drive. Behaving in this way has been shown to be a risk factor for heart disease
*4/108/2*

Shuddha Guggulu

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
PROBLEMS OF WEIGHT CONTROL: PLANNING FOR WEIGHT LOSS
Any program of weight loss of more than a few pounds should be directed by a physician. If a weight-losing program is to be successful, the individual must be convinced of the rewards that will come: better health, a slimmer figure, more pep, and perhaps a longer life. Although a low-calorie diet is used only so long as weight needs to be lost, each obese person must be convinced that he needs to modify his lifetime eating habits. If he fails to do this, he will gain back all the pounds he has lost.
It is important to set a reasonable goal. A weekly weight loss of 1/2 to 1 kg (1 to 2 lb) is better than a crash program that leaves one tired and unwilling to continue. If one needs to lose 25 kg (55 lb), six to nine months is not an unreasonable time allowance.
Keeping a weekly weight chart is a good idea. The person should weigh at the same time every week on the same scale and with the same amount of clothing. He needs to know that the scales might not show any weight loss for the first week or two because, in some instances, water is temporarily held in the tissues when people are placed on reducing diets. After a while this water will be released from the tissues, and the weight loss will show up.
Exercise has its place in a weight-reduction program. Walking is one of the best exercises. People can walk a few extra blocks to work or make it a practice to see a little more of the outdoors on foot rather than from an automobile window. Moderate exercise does not increase the appetite as some claim. For very obese persons, or those who have been ill, the recommendation for exercise by the physician should be followed closely. It is never a good idea for a person who has been sedentary to suddenly engage in violent exercise.
*10/234/5*

Mexitil (Mexiletine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Mexitil(Mexiletine)
CONDITIONING YOUR HEART
Anyone with a heart condition – or who suspects they have one – should be under a doctor’s care. But the following prevention tactics could help you from ever needing it.
• Decrease your consumption of sugar, salt, saturated fats, hydrogenated oils, and cholesterol.
• Watch your weight
• Stop smoking
• Practice relaxation techniques such as meditation and biofeedback to reduce stress.
• Eat more garlic, fresh fruit, and fish
• Increase your intake of soy protein (use in place of animal protein whenever possible)
• Get enough calcium and magnesium in your diet (supplements of 1,000 mg. calcium and 500 mg. magnesium daily are recommended)
• Laugh more (it really is the best medicine)
• Exercise regularly.
Supplement Suggestions
• Vitamin В complex, 100 mg. (time release), a.m. and p.m.
• Extra niacin, 100 mg., 1-3 times daily
• Vitamin E (dry form), 400 IU, daily
• 3 lecithin capsules or 3 tbsp. granules, 3 times daily
caution: If you are on any heart medication, check with your doctor before starting a supplement regimen. Also, be aware that vitamin E can increase the imbalance between the two sides of the heart for some people with rheumatic hearts.
*1/137/5*

Cozaar (Losartan)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cozaar(Losartan)
OBESITY: WHAT GOES WRONG?
It is unlikely that there is any one cause for obesity. In some obese people overeating is the obvious explanation; alcohol abuse is another common cause. A gram of alcohol provides nearly twice as many Calories as a gram of starch. In the background there is sometimes an occupational hazard (being a cook, an expense-account businessman, a house-bound mother). But it is all too easy to ascribe obesity to gluttony, sloth or both. This is a floral attitude, not a scientific one (and probably confined to thin moralizers too!).
Social factors are important. Women and girls from underprivileged homes are especially prone to obesity. Emotional factors play an obvious part. Depression can lead to increase or loss of appetite. Childhood obesity is commoner in only children, in the children of older mothers and in one-parent families. A child can all too easily be taught that food is comforting. Lack of exercise is certainly important: fat people are less active than thin ones. Even if the inactivity has not been shown to cause the obesity there is no doubt that it helps perpetuate it. The man who used to walk a mile a day, and then gives this up, will gain about 6 lb each year thereafter (unless he starts to eat less).
*2/202/5*

Combipres (Clonidine, Chlorthalidone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
GET WEIGHT OFF: EATING HEALTHILY
Some people have problems with the digestion of the milk carbohydrate, lactose, and may avoid all milk products for that reason. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include intestinal cramping, gas, and diarrhea. If you suffer from lactose intolerance and avoid milk products, be sure you get adequate calcium from other food sources or supplements. Special products available at most supermarkets and pharmacies can be added to your diet to counteract the lactose intolerance, making it possible for you to drink milk and enjoy milk products. Some milk products are chemically treated to make them safe for people who have lactose intolerance. Be sure to read your dairy product labels to learn which ones are low-fat, low-calorie, and treated for lactose intolerance.
Protein foods are a food group that Americans eat larger amounts than the body needs. (Possible exceptions are dried beans, peas, and lentils.) Protein is needed to build and maintain body tissues, and many people think if a little is good for building muscle, then a lot must build even more muscle. That is not the case.
Body builders need a slightly higher amount than the average person, but, with most Americans eating double or triple the needed amount of protein, that is hardly an issue. If you eat more protein than you need, the excess will be burned as energy, if needed, or stored, if not needed immediately. Four to six ounces, or the equivalent, per day are all you need for good health. Protein foods contain fat, so it is a good idea to limit these foods to their recommended levels.
At the top of the pyramid, in the smallest section, are fats, oils, and sweets. The advice is “Use sparingly,” but what does that mean? If you are trying to lower your cholesterol but are not worried about your weight, you should have no more than 25 grams added fat in your daily diet. Alcohol, which is metabolized in a manner similar to fat, should be limited as well.
If you are trying to lose weight, you should eat no more than 15 grams of added fat. This fat level does not include fat that occurs naturally in foods such as lean meat, fish, poultry, low-fat cheese, and other low-fat dairy products, but it does include fat that you or the food manufacturers add to your food.
Butter, margarine, cooking oil, salad dressing, mayonnaise, and fats cloaked in chemical disguises are added to snack foods, desserts, and other packaged foods.
The recommended amounts are: no more than one small serving per day for women or two small servings per day for men.
Many people believe that to stay on their diet and to eat healthily, they must not eat cookies, candies, or other desserts.
There are no good foods and no forbidden foods-only foods you should eat more of and foods you should eat less of. One small dessert one to three times per week will not make you obese nor will it sabotage your diet efforts.
One equation says it all for long-lasting weight reduction:
Reduce fat = Reduce weight
Reducing fat in the diet is an effective strategy for losing weight because a lot of calories can be eliminated without having to reduce the volume of food consumed. With nine calories per gram of fat and only four calories per gram of protein or carbohydrate, fat is the most concentrated source of calories in most people’s diet. Alcohol, which has seven calories per gram, is in second place.
Excess fat has been linked to heart disease, some cancers, and obesity. Women especially seem to benefit from reducing fat intake to lose weight.
*4/135/5*

Hyzaar (Losartan, Hydrochlorothiazide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Hyzaar(Losartan,Hydrochlorothiazide)
VEGETARIAN DIETS
Levels of vegetarianism
A vegetarian diet is one that eliminates one or more of these food groups: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, used by Trappists, Seventh Day Adventists and others, include milk, milk products, and eggs, but no meat, fish, or poultry. These diets are planned to be nutritionally adequate without difficulty. Lacto-vegetarian diets include milk and milk products but no eggs, meat, fish, or poultry. These diets can also be planned to be nutritionally adequate. Strict vegetarian diets (also known as vegans) include only plant foods. There are many variations of the strict vegetarian diet, some of which are nutritionally adequate when appropriately planned, while others are seriously lacking in nutrients. The Zen macrobiotic diet is a diet progressing through several stages, the last of which consists principally of brown rice. This diet, lacking in some essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, has resulted in severe malnutrition in persons who have adhered to it for a long period of time. Fruitarians consume diets consisting of raw and dried fruits, nuts, honey, and oil. Such diets are deficient in many nutrients.
Reasons for vegetarianism
Probably the most important reason for a vegetarian diet is that given people adopt a diet of foods that are readily available. In many parts of the world plant foods are abundant, while animal foods are scarce or expensive. In the United States vegetarianism has been adopted by many people because (1) they are concerned about the most efficient use of available land for food production, (2) they believe a vegetarian diet to be more healthful, and (3) their religious or ethical beliefs include such a diet.
The protein problem
Proteins from single plant foods do not furnish sufficient amounts of the essential amino acids to meet the needs for tissue proteins. This is especially true during periods of growth. However, plant foods differ from each other in the kinds and amounts of essential amino acids that they furnish. For example, grains are good sources of methionine but do not have sufficient lysine. Legumes are good sources of lysine, but somewhat deficient in methionine. A general rule, then, is to combine legumes in the same meal with a cereal grain. Thus, beans and corn, as used in Mexican diets, are a good meal combination that compares favorably with meat.
Other nutritional problems
Vitamin B12 occurs only in animal foods. Children raised on strict vegetarian diets will not grow properly unless their diets are supplemented with vitamin B12. When no milk is used in the diet, an adequate supply of calcium can be assured if soy milk fortified with calcium is used. Some of the green leafy vegetables are also a good source of calcium. Although an appreciable amount of iron is furnished by an abundant intake of green, leafy vegetables and whole-grain cereals, some of this iron may be poorly absorbed. The absorption of iron from these foods is improved if each meal contains a good source of ascorbic acid.
*4/234/5*

Aceon (Perindopril erbumine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Aceon(Perindoprilerbumine)
THE MIND REACTS TO THE HEART DISEASE: ANGER
In the research on mind and heart, much has been written about the possible effects of ongoing anger and hostility as a “risk factor” for CAD. In other words, people who are constitutionally angry or hostile may be more susceptible to heart attack than those who are more even-tempered. This theory is still being investigated. However, many patients recuperating from a cardiac event report having angry feelings during the weeks after the event.
“Why me?” is the universal outcry. “Why not the guy next door, who has so many more risk factors, ignores his wife and is mean to his mother-in-law?!” What we hear from patients is an existential cry at the unfairness of what has been handed to them in their lives. This lament often surfaces within weeks of the cardiac event and is very responsive to a sympathetic ear. There is not much that the listener has to do initially, besides being prepared to listen, with empathy. However, the positive impact of having this anger acknowledged (or “validated”) cannot be overstated, because a major blow to the sense of self has occurred and, in the early stages of reaction, many CAD patients feel their sense of self, their self-esteem, or the way they judge themselves, has been shaken. This won’t last forever, but it can linger for weeks or months, until the next phase has taken good effect. For those in whom the anger persists, a different tack has to be taken. We address the question of anger management in general in Chapter 6 and, in a more focused way, in Part Two, but the point we wish to make here is that anger is a natural response to a cardiac event. If you can acknowledge it, and understand it, it will often subside on its own.
Anger continues for various reasons. Some people (maybe one out of five) are simply more aggressive than others. Associated with aggression is an underlying mistrust of others and a general cynicism about people and what one can expect out of life. When those who have this tendency experience a cardiac event—and particularly if stabilization of their medical state has, for some reason, been delayed, as was the case for Anna—bitterness and anger, felt inwardly or expressed outwardly, can be expected. As we have seen, once the physical state has become stabilized, these attitudes and behaviors are likely to subside. As well, when such patients have committed to rehabilitation, these energies can be harnessed to more healthy ends. However, if the anger persists, there is ample evidence that patients would benefit from, both emotionally and in the long term in their cardiac outcome, instruction in the techniques of anger management.
*18/214/2*

Zebeta (Bisoprolol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zebeta(Bisoprolol)
THE SYMPTOMS OF A HEART ATTACK
Some people mistakenly believe that a heart attack means that their heart has stopped. This is not the case. However, if the heart attack is serious enough then it can cause the heart to stop, and this is called a cardiac arrest.
The symptoms may vary from person to person, but they typically involve the following:
Pain: This may range from a dull ache to a very severe vice-like pain, usually in the central chest, but it may also radiate down the left arm, up into the throat and down as far as the abdomen. Breathlessness: Shortness of breath, shallow breathing, or a gasping for breath, may be due to the heart attack itself or can occur because of heightened anxiety or fright associated with the feelings of pain and the thoughts of possible death. It is the perfectly understandable reaction to such a major threat to one’s life.
Nausea: Again, this symptom may or may not be present or it can actually cause some people to vomit. Dizziness: Lightheadedness, dizziness and even loss of consciousness are sometimes experienced, and should never be ignored because they are serious signs of heart attack.
Because people are so different there are many different reactions in the way we feel, think and behave regarding a heart attack. The above symptoms are typical but not everyone will have the typical symptoms. This may be one of the reasons your doctor may at first be unsure about the diagnosis of heart attack. Someone who regularly has angina may think it is just another angina attack and some people have no symptoms at all and are unaware that they have had a heart attack.
*7/108/2*

Aldactone (Spironolactone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Aldactone(Spironolactone)
CONSIDERING OBESITY AS DISEASE
Why do certain people have a tendency to become fat? Many agencies have been blamed, especially popular among the afflicted being internal secretions. Rarely can this be proved. When the whole matter is carefully studied, it is found that the thoughtful Dr. Samuel Johnson, two centuries ago, gave a pithy and correct answer: “Nay, sir, whatever be the quantity that a man eats, it is plain that if he is too fat he has eaten more than he should have done. One man may have a digestion that consumes food better than common; but it is certain that solidity is increased by putting something to it.”
Many fat people say that they have inherited the condition. The answer to that is that if mother prides herself on setting a good table, if dad eats heartily, if the household attitude is that good food in generous quantities is the end and purpose of life, then the entire family may become obese, inheritance or no inheritance.
Visual education is being emphasized now, so look about you in the drugstores and lunch bars. Recently I found myself at noon in a suburb of New York. I was taken for lunch to what was obviously a popular place for mothers and children and the teen-age group. One could get a rather poor ham sandwich or the ubiquitous hamburger, but the staple foods which everybody had were cold sweet drinks and ice cream. These are good energy-producing materials and the young need plenty of energy, but they also need vitamins, minerals, proteins, and roughage, all of which should be supplied by their food; and here these things were at a minimum.
All of you have been exposed to much instruction on obesity. Books and articles on the subject have come in floods, all of them with an optimistic note, “Do this and become slim.” Added to this are advertisements showing fat ladies who have become sylph-like and pointing out their royal roads to slenderness. Few if any of these procedures are of value. Exercise will not take off fat, but it will give you a wonderful appetite for more food. The athletes whom you see running with heavy sweaters on are taking off weight but it is water, not fat. Experimenters claim that the average man would need to climb the Washington Monument forty-eight times or walk sixty-six miles to burn up a pound of fat in the body. Either do massages, vibrators, or straps influence the fat. Tight wearing apparel may make the bulges less conspicuous, that is all. The bitter truth is that only diet will reduce your fat.
When fat people say: “Oh, doctor, I eat like a bird,” one physician remarks: “Yes, like a vulture.” This, however, is a little hard on the fat people. Their appetite is so good, having been developed when they were younger and could eat heavily without getting fat, that they really do not realize how much they consume. However, it is a sad truth that they cannot keep their weight down by physical medicine and gadgets.
All this does not mean that we should discourage the eating will wager that Rocky Marciano eats enormous meals, yet I imagine that he goes in for thick steaks more than pies and pastries. You can be pretty certain that Joe Louis, in the latter part of his career when he was blubbery, did not choose his type of food carefully. Why, even in Great Britain, in the Spartan years of the war and just after, health authorities worried about obesity. You must remember that the scarce foods were proteins – meat, eggs, and cheese. The medical journals emphasized the social as well as the physical disadvantages of overweight, and spoke of young girls bulging with puppy fat that was derived from a free and unthinking flow of buns, sweets, and other carbohydrate foods. Fortunately, after puberty a girl’s interests change, and her desire to be attractive leads automatically to wise eating.
The result of all this philosophizing about fat would seem to lead to the conclusion that it should be a simple matter to keep thin. A careful medical look-over of the great majority of obese people will show that there are no hidden physiological reasons to account for their being that way. Having made certain of this, the physician may then start the care of his patient with the confidence that the real problem is the control of the intake of food. First of all he must use judgment in deciding whether his patient does need reducing. Not all of us need to be the slender type. Youngsters at puberty may reasonably be a little plump. Some middle-age spread may be reasonable. After all, the Venus de Milo had more weight on her than would now win her the title of Miss America.
*2/276/5*

Micardis (Telmisartan)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
TAKING CARE OF YOUR HEART: FOOD AND LABELING
At present only a minority follows the prudent diet, but the proportion of prudent eaters will probably grow steadily. Some, on grounds of age or for other reasons, will of course continue to follow a conventional diet. To permit individual choice it is proper that foods which contribute significantly to our fat intake should be labeled with the amount and the types of fat present. This has been one of the recommendations of the Sub-committee on Preventive Medicine of the House of Commons Expenditure Committee in the U.K., and of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs reporting to the U.S. Senate. In particular the content of saturated fat should be displayed, and preferably also that of unsaturated fat.
It is sad that a few food manufacturers choose to take a defensive stand on the subject of the prudent diet; this creates a polarization which is quite unnecessary. Above all, we believe that the prudent diet is no threat to the profitability of the food industry. Fortunately the farming, processing and marketing of foods are versatile, efficient undertakings. The suggested trends could readily be accommodated within the industry given adequate time. Improved longevity would lead to an increased demand for food and food products. Clearly, the basic goal should be to provide and to promote a range of alternative foods in addition to conventional ones. Finally it is worth reflecting that farmers, processors and retailers are also, like the rest of us, gravely at risk from coronary heart disease.
*67/202/5*

Cilexetil, Atacand (Candesartan)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
IS OBESITY A DISEASE?
According to Webster, disease is an alteration interrupting or disturbing the body’s vital function; so obesity is a disease. Yet from time immemorial it has been treated as a joke to be fat. That attitude has changed. Try to take out life insurance and see the adverse attitude of those very practical businesses towards overweight. If your stomach girth measures more than your expanded chest, life insurance will cost you more, if allowed. The one situation where superfluous fat seems to be a decided advantage is in cold water swimming. Seals and whales take practical advantage of its great insulating quality.
A few years ago the New England Journal of Medicine published a symposium on obesity. With us doctors, a symposium means a collection of papers on one subject; the Greeks meant by it a drinking party. In this era of overuse of soft sweet drinks the Journal chose an excellent title. Dr. David P. Barr, professor of medicine at Cornell Medical School, let himself go when he discussed health and obesity. I will give you an extract, hoping that it does not drive you into self-enforced starvation.
Obesity predisposes to diabetes, increases the tendency to hypertension, favors the development of atherosclerosis and contributes to heart failure. It increases the incidence of gall stones. It causes shortness of breath on exertion, intolerance to heat and excessive sweating. It leads to maceration, intertrigo, eczema and furunculosis. It fosters the development of postural emphysema, flat feet, hernia and osteoarthritis of the hips and knees.
If there are any words there which you do not understand, just take it for granted that they are undesirable bodily conditions. Dr. Barr said more, but it is just too tough for pleasant reading.
The mere carrying about of extra weight puts a decided handicap on the heart, causing inefficient mechanical functioning. It adds a burden to all the other muscles, the circulation, and respiration. The strain on ligaments and joints frequently results in chronic aches and pains, especially in the lower back and arches of the feet. The overweight, flat-footed policeman has been a byword for years. We do not see so many like him now.
Dr. Elliott P. Joslin, of Boston, long ago noted the relationship between diabetes and obesity and he has continued to stress it. Apparently overweight definitely predisposes to diabetes and when the disease is established, fatness complicates it, making the conduct of the case more difficult. One of the great dangers of the diabetic is acidosis. It used to be said that in the body the fat is burned in the flame of the carbohydrates. While this is not quite a true statement, yet the great trouble of the diabetic is the handling of carbohydrates (that is, sugar and starches). Burning the fat alone produces much partly burned, or oxidized, material that may cause diabetic coma, the most dreaded of complications.
Surgeons find their work complicated in fat people. A two-or three-inch incision is usually ample for an appendectomy and yet in a tremendously fat person a cut over a foot long has been known to be necessary.
*1/276/5*

Microzide (Hydrochlorothiazide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Microzide(Hydrochlorothiazide)
Other names: Hydrodiuril, Esidrix, Oretic
Dr Edward Howell, in his book, Food Enzymes for Health and Longevity, writes:
The fact that the enzyme content of organisms is depleted with increasing old age is forcibly presented when fluids or tissues are examined at different ages. After full mature growth has been attained there is a slow and gradual decrease in the enzyme content of organisms. When the enzyme content becomes so low that metabolism cannot proceed at a proper level, death overtakes the organism.
This decline in enzyme production in the body is due to a variety of reasons, not the least of which is the increasing overload of toxins, caused by a chronic food and chemical allergy condition.
The eating habits of modern mankind further increase toxic overload and speed up the ageing process. The cooking of food is amongst the worst of these habits, and I have found in my own case, that digestion and general health, improved substantially after changing my diet from mainly cooked foods to raw fresh foods. Why is it that cooked foods are so bad for the human body? The answer again is enzymes. Cooked food does not have any enzymes at all! It keeps so well because its natural enzymes, which would otherwise decompose it, have been destroyed. The reason for refrigerated food keeping so well, and frozen food keeping indefinitely, is that enzymes are inhibited by cold. Both cooked food and refrigerated food will only begin to break down when live enzymes are introduced by various microbes in the air. Likewise, preservatives inhibit enzymes, and canned food contains no enzymes.
What does all this mean? It means that, as the bulk of the food we eat contains no enzymes, the body, instead of being able to rely on assistance from natural enzymes in the food, has to produce all the enzymes needed for digestion. This places a continual strain on the digestive system and, as the years go by, results in a declining ability to produce sufficient enzymes for efficient digestion and assimilation of food.
The enzyme content of natural food is proportionate to the amount of calories contained. Fruit is high in enzyme content and is by far, man’s most natural and beneficial food. Vegetables contain some enzymes, but not enough to assist the body significantly. When cooked, of course, they contain none. Raw food is the key. Even raw meat and unpasteurised milk contain valuable enzymes, which are lost once cooking, or pasteurisation, takes place. Enzymes contained in raw food, play an important part in relieving the pancreas, and other digestive processes, of extra work. In addition, they are absorbed into the lymph and blood to supplement enzyme production within the body.
Dr Howell’s experiments showed that allergenic, partly-digested food particles in the blood, such as yeast, proteins and fats, could be properly digested if there was an adequate level of enzymes present in the blood serum. Thus, they would be removed quickly, instead of remaining to induce allergy responses. Dr Howell was also able to show that, when large doses of enzymes were administered orally, low enzyme levels in the blood returned to normal. It would appear, therefore, that enzyme supplements can be of significant assistance in food allergy illness.
Apart from cooked and processed food, a large proportion of modern diet consists of foods derived from grain products. When you consider breakfast cereals, bread, scones, cakes, biscuits, pie crusts, puddings, sauces, soups, gravy, etc., it makes you realize just how much reliance we place on grains, and their flours, in our everyday diet.
This is a problem because the grains are not easy to digest. Whether they be in wholemeal, or refined form, they pose a big digestive problem for the pancreas. Cereal grains must be cooked before eating because, being a seed, they contain enzyme inhibitors to prevent their destruction. These enzyme inhibitors must be destroyed by cooking, if the human body is to have any chance at all of digesting these foods. Unfortunately, the natural enzymes are also destroyed and, as grains have been constructed by nature to be extremely difficult to break down, the resultant, continual stress on the pancreas over many years of eating these foods, is severe.
Without sufficient enzyme levels, the body cannot function properly and begins to deteriorate. Enzyme levels are high in acute illness, but always low in chronic, or ongoing illness. Food allergy sufferers, invariably, have reduced enzyme levels, due to pancreatic and intestinal dysfunction. It is possible, however, to assist greatly in regaining enzyme efficiency by the following:
Take enzyme supplements daily, followed with bicarbonate of soda.
Eat smaller meals. Much better to have five or six light meals, throughout the day, than three larger ones.
Fast regularly (See Chapter 12)
Take nutritional supplements daily. (See Chapter 15)
Minimise, or avoid entirely, cooked and processed foods.
Do not eat grain products every day.
Do not eat meat every day. Cook as rarely as you can tolerate.
Identify your allergenic foods and avoid them religiously.
Maximise fresh food in your diet, particularly enzyme-rich fruits.
As much as possible, eat single foods at each meal.
*101/106/2*

Methyldopa

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
CHOLESTEROL AND ITS LEVELS
Cholesterol
Like everything else, there’s a good and bad side to fats. The general misconception that all of them are bad for you, prevalent as it may be, simply is not true. And the most maligned of all is cholesterol.
Practically everyone knows that cholesterol can be responsible for arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, a variety of illnesses, but very few are aware of the ways that it is essential to health.
At least two-thirds of your body cholesterol is produced by the liver or in the intestine. It is found there as well as in the brain, the adrenals, and nerve fibre sheaths. And when it’s good, it’s very, very good:
Cholesterol in the skin is converted to essential vitamin D when touched by the sun’s ultraviolet rays.
Cholesterol aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates. [The more carbohydrates ingested, the more cholesterol produced.] Cholesterol is a prime supplier of life-essential adrenal steroid hormones, such as cortisone, and sex hormones. New research shows that cholesterol behaves differently depending on the protein to which it is bound. Lipoproteins are the factors in our blood which transport cholesterol. Low-density lipoproteins [LDL] carry about 65 percent of blood cholesterol, very-low-density lipoproteins [VLDL] about 15 percent, and do seem to bear a correlation to heart disease. But high-density lipoproteins [HDL], which carry about 20 percent, appear to have the opposite effect. HDL are composed principally of lecithin, whose detergent action breaks up cholesterol and can transport it easily through the blood without clogging arteries. Essentially, the higher your HDL, the lower your chances of developing symptoms of heart disease.
It’s interesting to note that females, who live eight years longer than males on the average, have higher HDL levels, and surprisingly, so do moderate alcohol drinkers.
Eggs might not be as bad as you thought. It is also worth mentioning for instance that though the egg consumption in the United States is one-half of what it was in 1945, there has not been a comparable decline in heart disease. And though the American Heart Association deems eggs hazardous, a diet without them can be equally hazardous. Not only do eggs have the most perfect protein components of any food, but they contain lecithin, which aids in fat assimilation. And, most important, they raise HDL levels!
How to Raise and Lower Cholesterol Levels
Raise Cholesterol Lower Cholesterol
Cigarettes Eggplant
Food additives such as BHT Onions [raw or cooked]
Pollutants such as PCBs Garlic
Coffee Yoghurt [even made from whole milk]
Stress Pectin [unpeeled apple, scraped apple, white
The pill membrane of citrus fruits]
Refined sugar soybeans
For cholesterol watchers, a meal of light-meat turkey is a good choice, especially since no more than 300 mg, of cholesterol a day are recommended for the average person. Three ounces of light-meat turkey have only about 67 mg. cholesterol [though the same amount of dark meat has 75 mg.] Be careful of turkey liver, though; one cup of it, chopped, has about 839 mg. And remember, vegetables are cholesterol-free without butter.
*1/134/5*

Lisinopril (Prinivil + Zestril)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Lisinopril(Prinivil+Zestril)
STEPS TO A HEALTHY HEART: PROFESSIONALS TO RELY ON
The term “medical team” is frequently used, and with good reason. It takes a close-working, well-co-ordinated effort to achieve the best results. You, of course, are an integral member of that team, not just the recipient of care. Those who passively sit by and nod during meetings, then assume that everything will be done for them with little or no effort of their own, typically do not do well. Those who actively participate, ask lots of questions, seek the best professional input, go for second opinions, utilise all the collateral services available, and then put good advice to practice are likely to come out as real winners. As I call them, former heart patients.
Many medical and surgical groups have nurses specifically assigned to cardiac patients. If the service is not offered to you, ask your doctor if you couldn’t be introduced to someone who could act as that kind of contact. It’ll make your life, your spouse’s life and your doctor’s life a lot easier and less stressful.
Next there is your cardiac rehabilitation team. If you follow my advice and take advantage of a structured, hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation program, your recovery will be easier, faster and more successful in all ways. Your job is to do exactly what they tell you to do, to the letter, and never miss a single session. Their job will be to provide the training and education you’ll need for a marvellous—and, yes, even enjoyable— recovery. They’ll also be there to answer questions that come up. This in itself makes the hospital-based program invaluable; imagine being able to ask any questions you have three times a week, every week, and have nurses, exercise physiologists, psychologists, nutritionists, occupational therapists and doctors to ask. It’s truly the ideal situation.
Similarly, I hope that the suggestions and coping strategies I’ve given you in this book will help you deal with the psychological aspects of cardiac recovery. But you may have individual questions that pertain to you and only you. Again, it’s time to rely on an outside expert. Your doctor or hospital can refer you to a psychologist, marriage counsellor, family counsellor, or occupational therapist who can help you come to grips with the problems that currently burden you.
The next group of professionals may not be in the health field, but they can exert a profound influence on your well-being and recovery. These are the people who can make you feel good for at least a little while, and who can make you feel better about yourself. They include those who provide such marvellous services as massages, facials, manicures and pedicures. Just having an appointment to look forward to can make the week a bit brighter. And allowing someone to totally pamper you for just a little while can have positive effects that can last for the entire day. Be nice to yourself now and then. It doesn’t have to be expensive, you don’t have to go to the most exclusive club or salon in town. But taking advantage of those little things that can mean so much can help your recovery by putting you into a better frame of mind.
*62/85/2*

Hytrin (Terazosin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Hytrin(Terazosin)
HOW PEOPLE REALLY DIET
Dieting is one of America’s favorite indoor sports. Half of the people in the United States have dieted at least once in the last 5 years. For a substantial group of people, dieting has become a compulsion, even though almost every dieter has lost weight and then failed miserably to keep the pounds off. The compulsive dieter thinks, “I know what went wrong last time; I can fix it this time.” It almost never succeeds.
Parade randomly telephoned 1,000 men and women nationwide to ask them how they dieted. They told us things about themselves that identified what it takes to be a successful dieter-one who can take off weight and keep it off for at least 6 months.
Based on the results of that survey, we created a questionnaire to show how successful you can expect to be on your next diet. The quiz follows this special diet report.
Important Findings from Parade’s First National Diet Survey
• The average dieter loses 16 pounds when dieting.
• Men lose a little bit more than women.
• But there are lots of heavy dieters: one of three took off 20 pounds or more.
• One person in 20 dropped 50 pounds.
• The most popular way to diet is just to eat less of the usual foods.
• Half the people lost their weight this way.
• But one in five opted for a special diet to take off weight. Equally popular was fasting or eating very little. (Men dieted this way more than women.) About 7 percent took a liquid formula diet, women favoring this two to one.
• Half the dieters in America get no vigorous exercise at all. That means that when they diet, they do not benefit by cutting appetite with exercise. Almost as many women as men exercise. It is the people over 65 who hardly get any exercise. But large numbers of people exercise three or more times a week.
• Women diet 50 percent more often than men. Even so, one man in three diets to lose weight. And one person in four hits the diet trail five times or more in 5 years.
• A lot of people-about a third-found dieting tough because somebody made it tough for them.
• Married people complained most frequently about their spouses. Dieting men got less help from their wives than dieting women got from their husbands. Children and coworkers didn’t make it easy either.
• Many dieters have trouble because they continue to eat even though they are no longer hungry. Women are just as troubled by this habit as men, but those who have the most difficulty with it are young people aged 18 to 24.
*4/266/5*

Avalide (Irbesartan, Hydrochlorothiazide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Avalide(Irbesartan,Hydrochlorothiazide)
GET WEIGHT OFF: USING NEW FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
How exactly does one eat healthily? The Food Guide Pyramid designed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services is an excellent guideline for determining a healthy diet. Most food choices should come from the lower part of the pyramid. These are the foods that contain complex carbohydrates-whole grain breads and cereals, pasta, rice and other grains, vegetables, and fruits.
Looking at the pyramid, you see starchy foods are at the bottom. Most of your calories should come from this group.
Many people have difficulty accepting this, because they have grown up thinking starchy foods are “fattening.”
Most traditional diets are low in carbohydrates (and high in protein), so there is widespread belief that carbohydrates are fattening. In fact, starches are low in fat, high in fiber, and packed with vitamins and minerals. More important in terms 0f weight loss, most people love them. As an extra plus, they are very satisfying and keep hunger away longer.
When you give up starches, you are setting yourself up for failure. Six to 11 servings per day are recommended. If you are trying to lose weight, eat the minimum number of servings recommended in each food group.
Fruits and vegetables are on the next level of the pyramid. “Five a Day for Good Health” is the slogan used to try to get people to eat more of these foods. Only 8 percent of the population knows they should eat a minimum of two servings of fruits and three servings of vegetables each day. In fact, 34 percent of the population believes they should eat one or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables each day. The average American eats three-and-a-half servings each day.
Fruits and vegetables are packed with nutrients. They are also low-calorie and virtually fat-free. They even have the “crunch factor”: crunchy foods are very satisfying to eat. Fruits and vegetables are definitely foods to be eaten in large quantities.
When we ask people about their intake of fruits and vegetables, their usual response is that they like them but they just don’t think about them. It’s time to think about them, even if you must make a note to yourself and tape it to your kitchen cabinets.
As you move up the pyramid, its area gets smaller, as do the number of servings recommended. This does not mean these foods are less important; we just don’t need as much of them. In traditional diets, dairy foods, like starches, are among the first to go, because they are perceived to be fattening. Some people have a mistaken notion that they no longer need milk when they reach adulthood. Dairy foods contribute important nutrients to the daily diet. They are especially important in building and maintaining strong, dense bones. The calcium found in dairy products is necessary in the prevention of osteoporosis, one of the causes of back pain. Recent research also indicates the importance of calcium, potassium, and magnesium in the regulation of blood pressure. Dairy foods contain all three nutrients in abundance.
Two to three servings a day of dairy foods are recommended, or three to four if you have osteoporosis. A serving is one cup of milk or yogurt or one ounce of cheese. Use the low-fat or fat-free versions of these foods.
*3/135/5*

Betapace (Sotalol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Betapace(Sotalol)
DIETING FITNESS: FOODS TO INCREASE
If fit and trim is what you want to be, then fibre foods are for you. What you have to be aware of, though, is that all fibre is not the same and that different types perform different functions.
Cellulose and Hemicelluloses fibre foods Whole-wheat flour, bran, cabbage, young
peas, green beans, wax beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cucumber skins, peppers, apples, carrots, whole grains, cereals, mustard greens, and beet roots
These absorb water and can smooth functioning of the large bowel. They “bulk” waste, moving it through the colon more rapidly, preventing constipation and also offering protection against diverticulosis, spastic colon, hemorrhoids, cancer of the colon, and varicose veins.
Gums and pectin Oatmeal and other rolled oat products, dried beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, cauliflower, cabbage, dried peas, green beans, potatoes, squash, and strawberries.
These primarily influence absorption in the stomach and small bowel. By binding with bile acids, they decrease fat absorption and lower cholesterol levels. By coating the lining of the gut, they delay stomach-emptying and thereby slow sugar absorption after a meal.
Lignin fibre Bran, breakfast cereals, aubergines, green beans, strawberries, pears, radishes, and older vegetables (as vegetables age, their lignin content rises)
Lignin fibre foods reduce the digestibility of other fibres, lower cholesterol, and speed food through the gut.
Caution: High-fibre foods are great for energy and weight reduction, but too much in your diet can cause gas, bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and possibly interfere with the body’s ability to absorb such necessary minerals as zinc, calcium, iron, magnesium, and vitamin В12. Fortunately, this can be easily prevented by varying your diet along with your high-fibre foods.
*3/137/5*

Inderal (Propranolol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Inderal(Propranolol)
Other names: Innopran XL, Propanolol
Acupuncture is an acient Chinese method of relieving pain and treating disease, by inserting needles into various parts of the body. This procedure can sometimes be uncomfortable, but has been largely superseded now by painless, electronic acupuncture.
According to Chinese philosophy there are two opposing forces of nature called Yin and Yang. These are related to the positive and negative energy currents in the body, which are known to exist. When there is a poor balance between Yin and Yang, disease and pain occurs. Acupuncture improves this balance by changing the flow of energy forces within the body.
Western medicine has not yet been able to explain acupuncture in purely scientific terms. However, a great deal of research, by Western medical scientists, during the past twenty years, has confirmed that it is extremely beneficial in a great number of complex disorders. Acupuncture often succeeds where other medicine fails, and the past few years have seen a great number of European, American and Australian doctors, either specialising in acupuncture, or using it within their general medical practice. German doctors, particularly, have realized the benefits of acupuncture medicine and have been instrumental in developing electronic, diagnostic and treatment methods that are producing excellent results. Dr Reinholdt Voll, in the 1960s, and more recently, Dr Helmut Schimmel are both largely responsible for these developments.
One of the most respected and acclaimed modern physicians in the field of electroacupuncture, is Dr William H. Khoe, of Las Vegas, Nevada. He has been successful in treating people for diseases, which conventional medicine has ignored, (including; multiple allergy illness). In recognition of his work, the World Health Organisation has appointed him to its committee on biological medicine. Dr Khoe studied electroacupuncture under the orginator, the great Dr Reinholdt Voll of West Germany. Dr Voll successfully treated himself for terminal cancer, many years ago, using his newly-developed EAV techniques. He has since trained many leading physicians, throughout the world, including Dr Khoe and Dr Kenyon of the United Kingdom. In recognition of his services, Dr Voll has been given a special award by the World Health Organisation, and a medal of honour from the Pope. It is extraordinary that these awards have been made in recognition of his achievements in the advancement of medical practice, yet most general practitioners in Australia, through their own ignorance, obstinately refuse to study his teachings, or use his methods. As a consequence, many people, who could otherwise be helped, continue to suffer.
*102/106/2*