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Archive for the ‘Cardio & Blood’ Category

Abana

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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TEETH PROBLEMS: GRINDING TO A HALT
Given that teeth grinders are genetically predisposed to brux, is there anything they can do to eliminate the habit? Not much, according to Dr. Rugh. “It’s like an ulcer,” he says. “It’s something you have to learn to manage the rest of your life.”
The most common treatment dentists prescribe is a night guard, a molded, protective plastic shield that fits over the top or bottom teeth. Some dentists may feel it necessary to grind or cap the teeth to modify a bruxer’s bite, although in most cases it’s rarely needed, says Andrew S. Kaplan, D.D.S., director of the TMJ/Orofacial Pain Clinic at Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New York in New York City.
If bruxing is causing severe damage, muscle relaxants or even antidepressants may be prescribed to temporarily reduce the tension that’s causing the problem in the first place. But that’s the extreme case. There’s plenty you can do to manage your bruxism before it ever goes that far.
Play it cool. Since stress exacerbates bruxism, do what you can to reduce your stress. “Take a stress reduction class,” suggests Richard Price, D.M.D., a clinical professor of dentistry at Boston University’s School of Dentistry and an adviser to the American Dental Association. Dr. Kaplan has found that biofeedback treatments can help teach patients to identify situations that provoke stress and to relax when they arise.
Stretch it out. Like any group of muscles, jaw muscles can be loosened up with exercise. John Dodes, D.D.S., lecturer in the Department of Dental Medicine at the State University of New York School of Dental Medicine in New York City, recommends simple stretching exercises such as opening your mouth moderately wide in sets of ten with your fist under your jaw for pressure.
Scratch the stimulants. A simple way to reduce the tension in your body is to cut stimulants such as coffee or tea out of your diet, Dr. Rugh says.
Sleep around. You can sometimes reduce your nighttime bruxing simply by sleeping in a different position. John C. Brown, D.D.S., past president of the Academy of General Dentistry, suggests asking your mate to monitor what position you’re sleeping in when you’re grinding. Try shifting to a different position—onto the other ^ide or onto your stomach if you grind while sleeping on your back—and see if the bruxing subsides. Use pillows to keep propped in the most desirable position.
Soothe the pain. For temporary relief of sore jaw muscles, take ibuprofen or aspirin, Dr. Kaplan says. You can also apply moist heat to the jaw, he adds, either with a wet washcloth or a hot pack, or simply let the shower run on your face for a few minutes. Don’t let the water get so hot that it burns your face, though.
*638/257/8*

Catapres (Clonidine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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WEIGHT PROBLEMS: ‘I CAN’T LOSE WEIGHT, DOCTOR’
For many physicians the answer to those who claim they cannot lose weight is – ‘Come into hospital for two weeks, and I’ll show you that you can.’ Under hospital supervision a reducing diet providing 400-600 Calories has yet to fail. It is very important for the patient with apparently resistant obesity to know that he or she can succeed in losing weight.
On a reducing diet, people shed weight at different rates. This is because they differ in the rate at which they expend energy. Textbooks have told us that an average man needs 2,500 to 3,000 Calories per day. But there are not many average men; and for some of us this may well be an overestimate. Some people require only 1,400 to 1,600 Calories per day. For them, 1,500 Calories of food is not a reducing diet, but a normal one. On the other hand, some very active men may need 3,000 to 4,000 Calories or more per day.
This is one of the mysteries which requires careful study. Why do a few individuals need so little food energy? Some are extremely sedentary. Possibly others have an unusually thrifty metabolism. Some strains of mice are prone to very severe inherited obesity. Dr W. P. T. James in Cambridge has found that they lack the ability shown by normal animals (and by human babies) to produce extra heat when, for example, stressed or exposed to cold. Affected mice tend to store food in the form of fat instead of using it to produce heat. Perhaps, Dr James suggests, some obese people have a similar problem. This would make weight reduction difficult. However they would still lose surplus weight if their Calorie intake were sufficiently low.
During a prolonged reducing diet some people lose the ability to convert their thyroid hormone into its active form. This tends to retard weight loss.
On a reducing diet the average person will lose I kg of weight for a shortfall of 7,000 Calories, or 1 lb for a deficit of 3,200 Calories. Suppose your diet gives you 500 Calories a day less than you are used to; and suppose you add 250 Calories of exercise to each day (an hour’s walk, 20 minutes’ running, 40 minutes of golf or dancing, half an hour of swimming or tennis). Your daily shortfall will be 750 Calories. On average you will lose at least l 1/2 (2/3 kg) a week. In three months this is 20 lb. Isn’t that fast enough?
*3/202/5*

Capoten (Captopril)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Capoten(Captopril)
TRIED AND TRUE RELAXATION TECHNIQUES FOR A BETTER HEART: BIOFEEDBACK
Psychologist Laurence Miller provided an excellent way of explaining the concept of biofeedback in Psychology Today. Imagine playing a video game while blindfolded and wearing earplugs. Without some kind of feedback or guidance, you’d probably be pretty lousy and there’s little chance you’d learn how to play the game well. That’s similar to what happens in the human body.
The “bio” in biofeedback refers to imperceptible physiologic processes including blood pressure and heart rate. In biofeedback, special devices amplify these processes into perceptible tones that can be “fed back” to the patient. The signal can then help one detect and control the body’s functions.
Typically, a sensor is fastened to a muscle and a light or buzzer goes off when the muscle is tight. The objective is for the individual to find a state of relaxation that soothes the muscle and cause the biofeedback sensor to cease registering tension.
Cues controlled by biofeedback in addition to blood pressure and heart rate are muscle tension, skin temperature and perspiration. By signalling reductions in muscle tension, improving blood flow to the extremities, or reducing sweat gland activity, these techniques help people to relax. Certainly not everyone needs machinery to learn good relaxation techniques. But some people do find themselves caught up in it, learning relaxation faster when there is an objective clue. Engineers and others geared to mechanics and gimmicks are particularly suited to biofeedback.
A typical course of biofeedback runs 12 to 20 weeks, with a few follow-up sessions likely. After that, most can relax on their own without the machinery. Some, however, find that they want their own equipment for home use. The cost of the machinery varies. The cost of the training is similar to that of psychotherapy. But in many communities biofeedback courses are offered through hospitals for a fraction of that amount.
*22/85/2*

Pravachol (Pravastatin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Pravachol(Pravastatin)
GETTING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ADVANTAGE OVER HEART DISEASE: DEALING WITH DENIAL
Many of us deny the very existence of a heart problem. We do that either directly or indirectly. Some people refuse to admit that their arteries are clogged even when shown their own angiograms. One man said that he would probably get a different opinion if he showed the pictures to other physicians; he turned down the opportunity to do so, however.
Other patients, rather like whistling in a cemetery, say there never was a heart attack in the first place. Those symptoms must have been something else, since they feel perfectly fine later on. Of course, the longer the time lag after the heart attack or surgery, the more likely that kind of denial will make sense to the patient, as recovery takes place naturally.
Can you imagine denying the problem in other situations or diseases? Picture a man being bitten by a rattlesnake saying, “Oh, it probably was just a little garter snake. I really don’t need treatment.” Or the woman who has accidentally swallowed poison saying, “Come on now, that was just soda pop. Why should I take an antidote?”
Those who deny they have heart disease are unlikely to adopt the long-term strategies that will enable them to remain well. I suppose I was one of those deniers, but of a different stripe. I was fully aware that 1 had heart disease, and never denied the fact. But I denied that I had to do anything about it. Yet as much as I denied the reality in terms of preventive behaviour, 1 remained virtually paralysed, fearing the next heart attack.
It’s time to accept and overcome!
“Ah,” it’s been said so often, “if I only had known then what I know today.” Things, perhaps, would have been different. Maybe I wouldn’t have needed that second bypass. But that’s water under the bridge. There’s no point in dwelling on what might have been. All of us have to learn to let go of the past and go on to the future. That’s never been more true than in the case of heart disease.
Without having to be a mind reader, I can tell you that right now you’d like to somehow turn the clock back, to the time before the heart attack or before the bypass. You’d like to live the way you lived before heart disease entered your life. Right? Of course that’s right, because virtually everyone has those same thoughts.
But let me ask you this: was life really that terrific before heart disease? Were you living every day to its fullest, thinking about the present moment? Or were you really living without thinking much about it at all, always saying that you’d get around to this or that tomorrow or next year? You need to forget about that way of thinking and focus on the present. Live for today.
*3/85/2*

Lipitor (Atorvastatin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Lipitor(Atorvastatin)
STEPS TO A HEALTHY HEART: SURVIVAL STRATEGIES FOR SPOUSES
You can’t love someone else unless you love yourself first. And you can’t help someone else unless you have the physical and emotional capacity to do so. Therefore, before dealing with how a spouse can help a patient with his or her recovery, we have to deal with the problems of the spouse.
“What?!” you might say in amazement. “No one has ever asked how I’m doing.” “No one cares about me.” “It’s always him.” “I love him, but . . .” Don’t feel ashamed or embarrassed if those statements could be your very own quotes. It’s natural to feel that way.
In fact, it’s even natural to be angry and resentful that your spouse had the heart attack in the first place. It’s “ruined” your life. All those plans you had. You were just about ready to start really enjoying yourselves. Maybe the kids have finally gone and now there was going to be some time for yourself. Now it’s all ruined.
Well, let’s not say ruined, OK? Let’s say that your plans have been postponed for a while.
Next, don’t feel guilty about the heart attack itself. Some patients can be truly vicious at this time in their lives, lashing out at those around them, making them feel as though it was their fault that they had the heart attack to begin with.
Let’s put that argument away right off the bat. Heart disease, culminating in heart attack or surgery, is the result of years of deterioration beginning in childhood. There is the family history of the disease. There are the contributing factors outside of our control including diabetes and thyroid dysfunction. And there are the controllable risk factors including high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, cigarette smoking, overweight and sedentary lifestyle. Those are the things responsible for your spouse’s heart disease, not you! Never forget that!
Just as you didn’t cause your spouse’s heart disease in the first place, you’re not going to make it go away. Only the patient can do that. Yes, with considerable effort and lifestyle modifications as discussed in this book, heart disease can be stopped and even reversed. For most patients, heart disease can become a thing of the past, with a life free of fear of another occurrence. But you can’t do that for your spouse. You can help. You can facilitate. You can encourage. But you can’t do it for him or her. And you can’t force the patient to do it for himself or herself.
Don’t lay guilt on yourself. Don’t believe you are capable of more than is truly possible. Moreover, don’t become a nag. Making the patient’s life miserable by never-ending comments on diet, exercise, medications and so forth will just lead to marital strife. Neither of you needs that.
Certain patients seem bound and determined to let heart disease “finish them off. They refuse to change their lives one iota. They eat high-fat foods, never exercise, lead stressful lives without ever relaxing, smoke cigarettes and refuse to take medications. If you happen to be married to or involved with such a person, you must start planning for a future alone.
It may be morbid to say, but estate planning should be one of your priorities. Make sure the life insurance bills are paid up. Make sure you understand the household finances. Start living a life of your own, so it won’t be as traumatic when being alone becomes a reality.
But regardless of your spouse’s attitudes and willingness to make a full cardiac recovery, and even though you’re willing to help every step of the way, you still have your own life and health to consider, even during the earliest stages of the patient’s convalescence. You can’t sacrifice yourself entirely. In fact, that can be self-defeating and ultimately you’ll come to resent your spouse for it.
Here are some strategies for coping with the inevitable stresses in the coming weeks and months.
Maintain your own health. You’ve got to stay healthy and strong for your spouse’s sake and for your own sake. Letting stress cause you to begin smoking again would be a huge mistake. Food can sometimes be used as consolation; be careful not to allow yourself to gain weight in the process. Maintain your own exercise schedule, both for physical fitness and as a way to deal with stress.
Pay attention to grooming. This is not some movie tragedy in which you’re playing the suffering victim, looking haggard and worn, with no makeup, hair in disarray and clothes crumpled and soiled. Give yourself the gift of good grooming. Keep your hair styled and your make-up well done. Dress stylishly as always. Don’t ignore the little details. Maintaining pride in your appearance will help you to keep things in perspective, and will help keep you from feeling insignificant or unimportant.
Make time for yourself. Despite the added demands on your time, schedule a little space for yourself. Your spouse can survive an hour or two without you very easily. Go out for a facial and a manicure. See a movie. Take a long walk through the park. Even if there are things you could just as easily do at home, such as reading a book, leave the house for a while. Go to the library to read that book, for example.
You need to have some time on your own, time when the phone can’t ring and your spouse can’t make a request of some sort. Do so regularly, perhaps even every day.
Believe this or not, your spouse will appreciate the time alone as well! Many patients start to feel like their every move is being monitored, and they resent it. Being left alone can be a breath of fresh air for them as well. Maybe there’s a video your spouse has been wanting to watch, but hasn’t because you don’t share his tastes. Rent the video for him, and then go out to see a movie you’d enjoy.
Keep in touch with your friends. This one comes under the category of self-sacrifice and how to avoid it. Many spouses feel guilty about having friends visit, or going to visit them, during the recovery period. Having a good friend or friends can be a wonderful aspect of your own therapy. Yes, give them a progress report, but then talk about the things you’d normally discuss.
Continue your own job or career. Sure, you’ll probably want to take some time off to take care of your spouse during the first few weeks of recovery. But you have your own life to lead as well, and sacrificing a job or jeopardising your career isn’t the thing to do. Now, you may ask who’s going to do all those things you’ve been doing for your spouse? Get someone else to do some of the tasks that you can’t handle once you’ve returned to work.
If you stay home, you’ll lose income. So why not take that income and pay someone to come into the house while you’re gone? Every community has services available for just such circumstances. Often the person is a nurse, or has some training in caring for post-heart attack or post-surgery patients, and will also do some shopping and cooking.
In many cases, it’s financially expedient to pay such a person, resulting in a positive balance. But even if it’s a negative balance, consider the benefits to your own well-being as well as the future of your job or career.
Keep a sense of humour. Laughter is the best medicine both for the spouse and the patient. Tell a joke. Rent a funny video. Tape a comedy rerun on late-night television. Keep laughing; it can keep you from crying.
Manage your own stress levels. Remember that recovery is just as stressful for the spouse as for the patient, and maybe even more so. The same techniques that can help the patient can help you. Read and practise some of the suggestions in chapter 4.
Don’t deny your own needs. Consider yourself a full partner in the recovery process. As such you’re entitled to all the privileges of your relationship as well as the obligations. If you have an itch on your back, it’s perfectly all right to ask your spouse to scratch it. If you have an opinion, voice it. If you have sexual yearnings, let them be known and express yourself. Sex is not taboo. Read chapter 7.
Many women resent the fact that they’re expected to change their own lives and habits and tastes just because the spouse happens to have heart disease. Diet can be a big problem for some. Certainly, there are a lot of advantages in making the lifestyle modifications a family affair. And the low-fat, low-cholesterol diet that’s best for the heart patient is really a healthful diet that’s advised for all men and women. But you may not have to be as stringent.
In my own case, I haven’t eaten a single egg yolk since the second bypass in 1984. But my wife’s cholesterol level is perfectly normal. So when we’re in a restaurant, she has the poached egg and I have the egg substitute.
I don’t personally resent her eating those eggs, although now and then I wish I could have one. But if your spouse makes a big fuss about it, then just make a point of going out for breakfast or brunch once or twice a week and indulge your tastes. And don’t feel guilty about it.
Seek your own counselling. Sometimes having a good friend serves to get things off your chest and to put things into perspective. But sometimes it takes a professional to help you cope. Get the help you need. Perhaps you can talk with a clergyman. Maybe the hospital has a counsellor you could schedule some time with. There may be support groups for cardiac spouses, with people who have gone through the same things and are willing to share their experiences and insights. Or perhaps your doctor can suggest a good professional counsellor with training in family matters.
*55/85/2*

Avapro (Irbesartan)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Avapro(Irbesartan)
WEIGHT CONTROL: HOW DO SOME OF US STAY SLIM?
This is a difficult question. As often, we know more about rats than man. Rats eat to meet their energy needs. Exercise them and they increase food intake; their weight remains level. Feed them diluted or concentrated food: they eat a bigger or smaller volume and preserve their figures.
We too have some ability to match eating to energy needs; most of us do not change much in weight during adult life. We do not stay constant from day to day, but our weight fluctuates around a steady average value. This is quite an achievement: we may eat half a ton of food in a year, but few of us gain or lose more than four or five pounds.
But life is more complex for us than for the rat. Food is abundant in our affluent societies; we learn to eat for pleasure and as a social ritual rather than to relieve hunger. Sometimes we eat for solace or out of boredom. Our life style has overruled the hunger signal on which the rat relies. In addition, ours is a sedentary way of life; the internal-combustion engine has seen to that. Our opportunities to expend food energy have become small compared with those of our ancestors of even five to ten generations ago. Even the rat’s regulation of appetite breaks down when his physical activity is restricted, as Dr Jean Mayer has found at Harvard University.
Today, the leanest person is likely to be healthiest. This was not always the case. For our ancestors fat was a protection against cold, and a provision against food scarcity. Inherited obesity could have helped them survive; now, as Dr J. F. Neel suggests, a ‘thrifty genotype’ may be a disadvantage – in our food-abundant sedentary society it may predispose to obesity and shorten life.
*1/202/5*

Cardarone (Amiodarone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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Other names: Pacerone
A colonic irrigation is, in effect, a glorified enema, using, perhaps, a hundred, to a hundred and twenty, litres of water during a half hour, to one hour, period. The patient lies relaxed on an appropriate table and is connected to the colonic equipment, by a trained operator, who controls water flow and explusion, throughout the treatment.
It is a painless, and efficient, procedure to remove accumulated faecal matter from the bowel. It is of particular value, in that it can reach along the full length of the colon to the cecum — something which the enema cannot do. Thus, the vital digestive and peristaltic processes, of the first half of the colon, can be improved and, eventually, returned to normality by a number of treatments. This number may vary from six to twenty, or more depending on the degree of compactment. The colonic process allows the plaster-like coating to be thoroughly soaked and saturated with plain water. This enables its removal gradually, and comfortably, without causing the inner lining of the colon to become raw and painful.
Modern colonic equipment incorporates the injection of oxygen into the colon, together with the water. This process was invented back in 1938 by Dr Roy W. De Welles who, for years, was considered to be the outstanding authority in America, on diseases of the colon and methods for their recovery. European investigators, at the time, reported the results of tests of this treatment. They found that pint doses of oxygen, injected into the body by way of colonic irrigation, were more beneficial than hundreds of gallons taken by inhalation. The most dramatic results came from the application of oxygen to bowel disorders. Because putrefactive bacteria, abounding in these conditions, are anaerobic, they cannot live in the presence of oxygen. Consequently when oxygen is introduced, these germs are rapidly destroyed and normality can return.
Apart from the flushing and cleansing effect of the water, it also has a therapeutic effect on the intricate system of nerves and blood vessels within the colon. Proper regulation of water temperatures, by the operator, results in increased blood supply to the colon, greatly assisting in normalising its function.
It is important to realize that there are practically no sensory (pain-recording) nerves in the colon. This explains why people can often develop colonic disease, to a terminal state, before they are aware of any trouble. Thus, an allergy-caused pollution in the bloodstream can be developing without the victim being any the wiser, except that he feels bad and does not know why. The resultant poisons, generated in the lower bowel, will attack tissues, organs and glands which are congenitally the weakest. The result may be impairment of the kidneys, Bright’s disease, damage to the pancreas, diabetes, stomach ulcers, high blood pressure, cancer and so on. Therefore, the ramifications of allowing allergenic matter to impact and ferment in the bowel, year after year become obvious. There is only one result — serious illness, followed by major surgery, and even death.
It has been shown, over many years, that some serious conditions of the colon can be reversed and, eventually, cured by colonic irrigation. For allergy sufferers, not only is there an immediate benefit, that of removing allergens from the body, but also a longer term benefit — that of ensuring that accumulating toxins from an impacted colon, do not continue circulating in the body, to cause further disease and eventual death.
Colonic irrigation is relatively inexpensive, painless and effective. Many food allergy sufferers will have a degree of malfunction of the colon, due to impacted allergenic matter. Therefore, as part of the recovery process, allergy sufferers should consider colonic irrigation as one of the options that can help a return to efficient bowel function. If you decide to undergo colonic irrigation, ensure that it is carried out under medical supervision, by properly trained operators. Within these guidelines, I have found the procedure to be safe and effective. However, if you have any doubts, you should consult your doctor.
*110/106/2*

Triamterene (Triamterene, Hydrochlorothiazide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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ANGINA AND RELAXATION SKILLS: SELF-HYPNOSIS
The term ‘hypnosis’ conjures up images of people in zombie-like states, performing childlike, often degrading acts against their will. Whilst this may happen in show performances, this is not what you will be expected to learn in this article. Because hypnosis has had such a bad press people are either reluctant to use it and may be frightened of it or they may expect it to perform miracles. Some of the myths about it will be examined in this section.
Myth No. 1. You have to be a ‘certain type’ of person to be hypnotized
Not true. People are certainly different in the degree to which they respond to hypnotic suggestions but it is not only one type of person who will respond. Suggestibility can be measured and a good hypnotherapist would test your powers of self-suggestion before teaching hypnosis. Suggestibility is not related to gullibility, or intelligence, or your sex, or any of the other misconceptions you may have heard. It is correlated with a good imagination and people differ in the degree to which they can imagine things in their mind’s eye.
Myth No. 2. Hypnotists are in control of your mind Not true. All hypnosis is self-hypnosis, or self-suggestion, and you are at all times in control of what you are doing. When participants in stage shows of hypnosis do ridiculous things, they are simply going along with suggestions the hypnotist has made. If the hypnotist made a suggestion that the participant did not want to comply with, they simply would not do it.
Myth No. 3. You may be stuck in a trance
Not true. Whilst it is agreed that suggestions can be very
powerful and the hypnotic state can be very deep, if there was
danger of any sort present the respondent would come out of the
state. Hypnosis will not reduce you to a zombie. People often
drift into sleep under hypnosis then sleep and wake up quite
normally.
Myth No. 4. When you are in a trance you don’t know what’s happening
Not true. You may be less aware of some events going on around you at first but generally as you become more practised your senses sharpen. The hypnotic state may be so pleasant and relaxing that you choose not to accept some sounds or sights around you. But at the first sign of danger you would respond as though you were fully awake. Hypnosis is an altered, intensified state of consciousness which most users of hypnosis find stimulating and deeply relaxing.
Myth No. 5. You cannot hypnotize yourself Not true. You will be taught how to induce the state of hypnosis yourself. All hypnosis is listening to your mind making suggestions and your body going along with those suggestions. It may help to have someone make the suggestions for you, but it is not essential.
Listening to your own suggestions
Before launching into self-hypnosis it helps to train your mind to focus on your suggestions and this can be done by learning passive relaxation. It is called passive because it does not involve tensing the muscle groups but relies on your ability to induce relaxation by your thoughts alone.
Step 1. Begin as you would for the active, progressive relaxation technique. Place yourself in a comfortable, warm, private place. Step 2. Bring your attention to your body and its sensations and try to shut out the sounds around you. Close your eyes. Begin by doing a couple of deep breaths.
Step 3. Imagine that you are lying in a secluded position in the warmth of the sun. You may choose your garden at home, a beach or a hill top somewhere. The place doesn’t matter but it should be one that you can see with your mind’s eye. Concentrate on the sounds, sights, smells or tastes you would experience in this place.
Now imagine the sun bathing your body with warmth. Begin by feeling it over your toes and feet, up over your shins, calves, knees and thighs, over your lower abdomen, hands, forearms, upper arms, chest, shoulders, neck and face. Try slowly to let this warmth caress your body and as you feel the warmth also feel the sensation of lightness in your body. Feel your body becoming free and light, almost lifting off the ground. Imagine you are floating on a cushion of air between you and the ground.
Try to conjure up the sights you would see, the sounds, perhaps of the birds or waves, the smells of the grass or salt air and even the colours of the sky, the grass, the sand. Keep the scene as vivid in your mind as you can and just enjoy the feeling of being relaxed by your mind and body. Step 4. After a couple of minutes begin to bring your attention back to the room you are in, take one or two deep breaths and come back to feeling fully alert and refreshed.
This exercise, if practised, will prepare you for self-hypnosis.
How to carry out self-hypnosis
Step 1. Begin this exercise as you would any of the others. Find a quiet, warm, comfortable room where you won’t be disturbed. You can do this exercise lying or sitting. It may be best to learn it by using your usual relaxation posture.
Step 2. Pick a spot on the wall or ceiling which is almost out of your field of vision, so that you have to strain to see it. Fix your eyes on that spot and in doing so fix your concentration. Begin by taking five deep breaths, slowly and deeply, as you have learned before. With each breath feel your body become more relaxed, also feel the strain on your eyes as you hold your gaze on that spot. When you get to the third breath feel your eyes flicker, blink and water. At five close your eyes and use this as a cue to quickly bring on the deep relaxation. Take a further deep breath as you focus on the sensation of body relaxation.
Now imagine that you are at the top of five steps. You will take five further deep breaths and with each one imagine yourself descending one of the steps. Take this slowly and feel the sensation of greater relaxation with each step down.
Picture yourself approaching a lakeside. Take, in your mind, 20 steps towards the lake. As you do so, imagine the number turning over in your mind and with each one feel yourself become more relaxed. At 20 you will have reached the waterside. Gaze at the water and imagine the ripples caressing your body and taking your troubles away. Just enjoy this feeling of care-freeness and deep relaxation. As you do this the next step will be to learn how to bring yourself out of this state and very quickly back into it.
Step 3. Pick a colour or sight that you can see in this lakeside scene or use your cue word and concentrate on it for a few seconds. Feel as fully relaxed as you are able, for as long as you wish. Think of a word that sums up how you feel. It may be your cue word. This word will become your cue to be as relaxed as you are now, when you use it at other times. (That is called a posthypnotic suggestion.)
You can also suggest to yourself how relaxed and comfortable and vigorous you would like to feel in situations where you often experience angina. You will also find you will learn to relax more quickly if you can suggest to yourself, while under self-hypnosis, that you will feel more relaxed, more deeply, more easily, each time you practise these exercises. Then begin to wake yourself up gently and slowly. Take three deep breaths and as you do so count yourself from ‘five’ to ‘one’. With each number feel yourself become more alert and relaxed. Once you reach ‘one’ let your eyes open and stretch your limbs.
Step 4. If you choose to, you can go even deeper, more quickly, by fixing your eyes on that same spot as before. Take those same five deep breaths and as you do so feel your eyes ache and flicker. Feel your eyelids get heavier and at the fifth breath let them close. Enjoy the feeling of relaxation as it caresses your body with warmth and lightness. Take yourself back to your scene, staying for a few moments.
Step 5. Finally, bring your attention back to your surroundings. Take a couple of deep breaths, feel your lungs expand with the cool invigorating air and notice how much sharper your concentration is, how alert you have become.
This exercise is just one way of using your own suggestions to help yourself achieve relaxation. Practise as often as you can. The more you practise the more expert you will become.
*44/108/2*

Crestor (Rosuvastatin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Crestor(Rosuvastatin)
WEIGHT CONTROL: OBESITY AND GLANDS
Fat people often blame their obesity on their glands. Rarely, this is perfectly true. Now that, we can readily measure the minute amounts of hormones in a blood or urine sample it is easy to test for this possibility. Even without such tests doctors are often able to recognize glandular disorders at the bedside. An excess of hormones such as insulin or Cortisol can produce potentially curable obesity; so can lack of thyroid hormone. Correction of an underlying hormone abnormality will then be of benefit in many ways. But such causes are present in only a tiny minority of obese people.
A sports commentator in his late forties had fought a losing battle with his obesity, despite visits to health farms and brief encounters with many kinds of reducing diet. He had been treated for high blood cholesterol. He also complained of difficulties with his work; he tended to become hoarse while broadcasting. His examination suggested a lack of thyroid hormone; this was borne out by blood tests. His treatment is now a small dose of thyroid hormone each day, and he was for a few weeks on a reducing diet. He is now only slightly obese and seems able to eat quite normally without gaining weight. It is possible, too, that at least some of us can compensate for a small surplus or lack of food energy (i.e. of Calories). Dr Torun m Guatemala has shown that undernourished people react to lack of food by changes in behaviour. They conserve energy by cutting down on their activities – for example, they sleep more curing the day and work more slowly.
*4/202/5*

Lasuna

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
TESTICULAR CANCER: SEARCH AND DESTROY
There is no better way to keep testicular cancer at bay than to examine yourself for signs of its presence at least once a month, and ideally once a week. “You can’t emphasize the testicular self-exam enough,” says Dr. Warren. “It clearly makes a difference and it’s very easy to do.”
The exam is best done when the testicles are relaxed and loose, which is why most doctors recommend performing it just after taking a warm shower or bath. Taking one testicle at a time, gently roll it between your thumb and first three fingers until you’ve felt the entire surface. A healthy testicle will be about the consistency of a hard-boiled egg: smooth and firm, but not hard. If you feel lumps or areas of hardness, find one testicle to be larger than the other or experience any pain, you may have trouble. (Tumors can be felt when they get to be about the size of a pea— a small growth.) The exam takes about 30 seconds.
A number of problems can feel like testicular cancer but aren’t; if you find something, don’t get overly alarmed at first. “Twenty to 30 percent of the men I examine turn out to have an abnormality but not a significant problem,” says Richard D. Williams, M.D., professor and chairman of the Department of Urology at the University of Iowa College of Medicine in Iowa City. The main point is to see a doctor immediately: Even if the problem is benign (fluid buildup in the testicle, for example), you’ll want to relieve your anxiety and if necessary, fix the problem.
Your doctor may do a number of mild tests to determine whether or not you have cancer. He’ll hold a light to the testicle (the light will pass through mere fluid but not through a tumor). He may do an ultrasound to get a better picture of what’s there. He may also order a blood test, looking for various proteins whose levels rise in response to a tumor.
*640/257/8*

Dibenzyline (Phenoxybenzamine Hcl)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
TO LOSE WEIGHT, QUIT DIETING
Our answer to the diet problem is to have our patients quit dieting. We assess each person’s current diet and exercise habits. From that assessment, we determine what changes should be made, and the patients plan the changes that they are willing to make. Together, we establish a reasonable, healthy plan that requires gradual changes over time. In this way, each person “owns” his or her program and feels empowered to make changes toward a healthier life-style.
Dieting Can Lead to Bingeing
Why do we advise people to quit dieting? Because, as we have already stated, dieting does not work. Among its other effects, dieting in the traditional sense can lead to bingeing. The frequency and size of each person’s binges vary under different circumstances. Almost every dieter has, at some time, eaten a low-fat, low-calorie, nutritionally correct meal, then polished off the rest of the brownies later (usually when all alone).
Bingeing, even small bingeing, will make it difficult for j you to lose weight because you will feel out of control and “bad.” This will lead you to ask: “If I can control everything else in my life, why can’t I control my eating?” The reason is that traditional diets forbid certain foods. What happens when you tell yourself you can’t have a certain food? Take ice cream as an example. Suddenly, the off-diet ice cream becomes the food you desire most in the whole world. The urge to eat ice cream becomes uncontrollable, and you eventually give in and binge.
Dieting by forbidding certain foods is like holding your breath: you can only do it for so long. Eventually, you have to take a breath, and the first breath (a binge breath, if you will) is very deep. When this happens in dieting, you feel guilty and Vow to avoid that troublesome food forever. This only sets you up for another binge.
Dieting Can Make You Fatter
A third reason to avoid dieting is because it can make you fatter. Every time you lose ten pounds or more, especially if it’s on a very low-calorie or quick-weight-loss diet, you lose muscle and fat. When you gain the weight back, it’s usually just fat. This leaves you with more fat and less muscle each time you lose weight. This is like taking one step forward and two steps back.
When your body fat increases, your metabolism slows down, because, to maintain itself, fat requires little energy and fewer calories than does muscle. Fat is not a very active tissue; it stores itself until it is needed, which is only in a last-resort scenario. Not only do you gain more weight, but your calorie needs to maintain your weight become less with each diet. The next time you diet, it will take twice as long to lose the weight, and you will gain it back three times as fast.
Dieting Can Be Hazardous to Your Overall Health and Your Heart
A final reason to avoid dieting is because it can be detrimental to your health. Results from the Framingham Heart Study, in Massachusetts, showed yo-yo dieters were twice as likely to suffer from heart disease as were overweight people who had stable weights.
When obesity is bad and dieting is bad, what are people to do? The challenging answer is: Quit dieting, eat healthily, exercise more, and make a commitment to permanent life-style changes.
*2/135/5*

Minipress (Prazosin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Minipress(Prazosin)
HEART DISEASES: CORONARY HEART DISEASE, ATHEROMA AND OTHERS
Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is responsible for about on third of deaths in most Western countries. It takes a long time to develop and is usually present long before death. It is largely preventable. Since you have had coronary bypass surgery, however, it is already clear that you have coronary heart disease. But you will be relieved to know that its progress can be delayed or even reversed. You can do this by carefully following medical advice, taking any medication prescribed and making sure you lead a healthy lifestyle.
Atheroma
In affluent societies there is usually too much saturated fat in diets. This causes the body to produce large amounts of cholesterol-more than is needed-and the excess cholesterol and other fats (or lipids) make their way into the blood stream. Gradually, the cholesterol in the blood stream is deposited in the walls of the arteries, the vessels which carry blood under pressure from the heart to all parts of the body.
Eventually, small areas (or plaques) of fatty tissue form in the arterial wall. The artery wall becomes hardened around the fatty deposits (this is called sclerosis), and the flow of blood down the artery starts to be obstructed.
Coronary artery disease
These fatty deposits can occur in arteries anywhere in the body. However they are most likely to occur in the coronary arteries-the arteries which run down the surface of the heart and carry the blood to the heart muscle. Because they form a crown around the heart, they are called coronary arteries. When these arteries become narrow, the flow of blood through them is reduced and, with exertion, this results in chest pain. This pain is called angina pectoris, which means strangling in the chest. It may also occur when the patient is at rest.
Coronary occlusion- heart attack
A coronary occlusion occurs when a coronary artery becomes blocked (occluded) by a blood clot which develops on a plaque of atheroma. It is called a coronary thrombosis. The coronary thrombosis stops or greatly reduces the blood flow to a part of the heart muscle, and that part of the heart muscle may die or be damaged. When this occurs it is called an acute myocardial infarction. Another name for it is a heart attack. The myocardial infarction is later replaced by a scar in the heart muscle. In the diagrams you will see how a coronary artery occlusion can lead to a heart attack or myocardial infarction. The words coronary occlusion, coronary thrombosis, acute myocardial infarction and heart attack are often used interchangeably.
*1/160/5*

Imdur (Isosorbide Mononitrate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Imdur(IsosorbideMononitrate)
Other names: Ismo, Monoket
The Chinese believe that there are twelve main meridians, and many more lesser meridians, of energy which connect the body’s various organs, both to each other and to a particular part of the body’s surface. For instance, the liver is connected to the foot, the stomach to the hand and so on. The meridians are divided into five groups. These are main, connecting, divergent, muscle and extra.
Acupuncture points lie along the lengths of the main meridians. In effect, they are contact points for the organs and link each organ to a particular point on the skin. The Chinese believe that, when the point is stimulated by the insertion of a needle, a profound change in the flow of chi (energy) along the meridian, occurs. This, in turn, affects the organ itself. There are 361 named acupuncture points, distributed throughout the body as follows: 75 in the region of the head; 63 on each arm; 139 on the trunk; and 84 are located on each leg. There are also 36 extra points which lie either side of the body, but not along any particular meridian. According to the Peking Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, there are, currently, 83 acupuncture points in common use.
One of the most interesting groups of acupuncture points are known as the Bei-shu points. They are arranged on the back, at either side of the spine, from the shoulder blades downwards. These points are linked to the lung, heart, liver, stomach, kidney, large and small intestines and bladder. Discovering the precise location of a tender area of the back, enables the acupuncturist to diagnose which organ is diseased. Stimulating a Bei-shu point is believed to assist the damaged organ to regain function. As discussed in Chapter 7, food and chemical allergies can damage the major organs of the body by the accumulation of toxins. Allergy sufferers often do experience positive results from acupuncture, especially once the allergens are identified and avoided.
*103/106/2*

Midamor (Amiloride, Furosemide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
WOMEN FIGHTING HEART DISEASE TOO: BRINGING DOWN THE BLOOD PRESSURE
Elevated blood pressure looms as one of the “Big Three” risk factors for heart disease, along with cigarette smoking and high cholesterol levels. Here, too, there are special considerations for women.
As many females as males suffer from hypertension. Black women are at particular hazard, as are those over age 40 and those taking oral contraceptives. It’s been said that blood pressure is second only to cigarette smoking as the precipitating factor for heart attacks in women under 60.
Recommendations call for treating women whose diastolic pressure (that’s the one on the bottom) goes over 95.
A woman’s hormones are much different from a man’s, and may influence the way medications are used to treat blood pressure elevations. Fortunately, a great deal of data exist to guide doctors, and you and your physician will have to work closely together to determine which medications and at what dosages work best for you. There are many choices, and with diligence and patience you’ll find the drug therapy that’s just right for you.
But drug treatment is just part of the equation for controlling blood pressure. Once again we come back to diet and exercise. Weight loss can help bring hypertension down significantly, with or without medications. And exercise has both a direct and an indirect effect in getting the numbers down.
Although not everyone responds favourably to sodium restriction, women, in particular, can benefit by limiting the use of the salt shaker. Even if this doesn’t directly lower blood pressure, sodium restriction can limit the amount of fluid retained by the tissues. This, in turn, can help control weight. No, you probably won’t need to go on a strict sodium-restricted diet, but cutting back will do no harm and almost certainly some good.
*40/85/2*

Frumil (Amiloride)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Frumil(Amiloride)
NUTRITIONAL PLANNING: DIETARY GOALS
The Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs in 1977 issued a list of dietary goals to recommend to people in the United States. These goals were based on the fact that many research reports have related excessive calories, too much fat, too much cholesterol, too much sugar, and too little fiber to increased risk of obesity, heart disease, cancer, various disorders of the digestive tract, diabetes mellitus, and others. Many nutritionists and physicians have accepted these findings and strongly support the Dietary Goals. Others state that proof of these relationships is lacking.
The Dietary Goals can be used with appropriate modifications of the Four Food Groups. Since the intake of fats and sugars is reduced, the choices of foods for daily menus must come from increasing amounts of fruits, vegetables, breads, and cereals. Thus, the nutritive value of the diet may actually be improved. If these goals are practiced over a lifetime, they should, in fact, improve the nutritional quality of the diet. They might have a preventive effect against the disease problems mentioned, but there is no guarantee that this is so.
The second edition of the Dietary Goals was published in late 1977.
Goals
1. To avoid overweight, consume only as much energy (calories) as is expended; if overweight, decrease energy intake and increase energy expenditure.
2. Increase the consumption of complex carbohydrates and “naturally occurring” sugars from about 28 per cent of energy intake to about 48 per cent of energy intake.
3. Reduce the consumption of refined and processed sugars to account for about 10 per cent of total energy intake.
4. Reduce overall fat consumption from approximately 40 per cent to about 30 per cent of energy intake.
5. Reduce saturated fat consumption to account for about 10 per cent of total energy intake; and balance that with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, which should account for about 10 per cent of energy intake each.
6. Reduce cholesterol consumption to about 300 mg a day.
7. Limit the intake of sodium by reducing the intake of salt to about 5 gm a day.
The Goals suggest the following changes in food selection and preparation:
1. Increase consumption of fruits and vegetables and whole grains.
2. Decrease consumption of refined and other processed sugars and foods high in such sugars.
3. Decrease consumption of foods high in total fat, and partially replace saturated fats whether obtained from animal or vegetable sources, with polyunsaturated fats.
4. Decrease consumption of animal fat, and choose smaller portions of lean meats, poultry and fish which will reduce saturated fat intake.
5. Except for young children, substitute low-fat and nonfat milk for whole milk, and low-fat dairy products for high-fat dairy products.
6. Decrease consumption of butter fat, eggs, and other high cholesterol sources. Some consideration should be given to casing the cholesterol goal for premenopausal women, young children, and the elderly in order to obtain the nutritional benefits of eggs in the diet.
7. Decrease consumption of salt and foods high in salt content.
*2/234/5*

Norpace (Disopyramide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
Other names: Norpace CR
The word ‘constipation’ comes from the Latin word constipatus which means ‘to cram’ or ‘pack together’. The packed accumulation of faeces in the bowel makes evacuation difficult. This can come about because of the semi-paralytic effect of allergenic matter on the intestine. The resultant slowing down of bowel movement results in a clogging effect, leading to constipation.
A state of constipation may also exist when bowel movements seem to be normal. This is due to allergenic food leaving a coating of slime on the inner walls of the colon, like plaster. As time progresses, this coating will increase in thickness until there is only a narrow tube, through which the faeces can pass for final evacuation. This causes a back-up of faeces in pockets within the colon, resulting in distortion of the colon, malfunction and disease. It will also affect the final digestive process, resulting in the passage of undigested food, from which the body derives little, or no benefit.
The coating, or faecal incrustation on the inside of the colon, partially or totally, prevents the infusion of the intestinal flora necessary for colon lubrication. These normally come from glands in the walls of the first half of the colon. As a result, not only is the passage of faeces restricted by the narrowing aperture, but, also, by the lack of lubrication, resulting in a ‘sticky’ contact with the colon walls. This results in a gradual build-up of the coating, which, increasingly, blocks the bowel and becomes a continuing generator of toxicity. Not a happy picture!
Use of laxatives to rectify constipation is safe enough, occasionally. However, when the bowel has become impacted to the point where constant use is necessary, it becomes a very dangerous situation indeed. Many people do not realize that laxatives work by irritating the bowel. This causes it to go into a paroxysm of movement in order to expel the laxative, and anything loose in the bowel goes with it. It has been found that the use of laxatives and cathartics are not only habit forming, but decidedly destructive to the membrane of the intestines. They disturb the natural rhythm of the excretory organs, which demand increasingly heavier doses until the point of no return is reached. Permanent damage may, eventually, require a colostomy. It is not necessary for this to happen, as in many cases, a series of colonic irrigations can remove impacted, allergenic material and help restore normal bowel function.
*109/106/2*

Atenolol (Tenormin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Atenolol(Tenormin)
WEIGHT LOSS AND HOT FOODS
You may feel that when you eat hot food such as chili, mustard or peppers that they are not good for you. These foods indeed can and do give a burning sensation to the mucous membranes in your mouth and because these foods are so ‘HOT’ many of us just can’t eat them.
Hot foods they may be but chilies can help you lose weight! Yes, the latest studies using chili, mustard seeds and spices showed that weight loss can be increased by as much as 25 per cent when these spices are added to a calorie controlled diet. Chilies, or cayenne pepper, as they are more commonly known, have been used as a remedy for intestinal wind and poor digestion for hundreds of years and today they are still included in many people’s diet in order to obtain these benefits.
Scientists now believe that two of the chemicals found in cayenne could increase weight loss by their action upon the thyroid hormone. A study carried out at the University of Tasmania found that the metabolic rate of 4 out of 6 people was increased after one meal which contained one tablespoon of tabasco.
If being overweight is your problem, then add a little of the ‘hot stuff’ to your meals either by sprinkling it on or adding it when cooking. Cayenne pepper can be bought from your health food store in bulk and it is not expensive; however it is hot, so only use a little at first and build up to about a quarter of a teaspoon at each meal. This should do the trick.
If you can’t stand the heat, then take an empty capsule and fill it with 300mg of cayenne pepper. You should then take one with each meal. Sometimes hot spicy foods can upset the stomach and if this is the case then reduce the amount or discontinue their use.
Remember, if you are serious about weight loss then don’t eat junk foods. Chocolate, sausage rolls and milk shakes as part of the daily diet will still put on weight even if you do add chili. Eat lots of vegetables and fruit, and include whole grains, lean meat and low fat dairy products in your diet. This, in conjunction with chilies, will not only help you maintain your correct weight but keep you a lot more healthy.
Drink more water to help the body to be flushed of toxins. Also water is a food appetite suppressant. Six to eight glasses per day are needed for good health.
Exercise is also very important as during exercise the metabolic rate increases and you will burn up kilojoules more quickly, resulting in a reduction in weight and a healthier you.
*1/199/5*

Ticlid (Ticlopidine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Ticlid(Ticlopidine)
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS: TWENTIETH CENTURY DISEASE
Another question which needs to be addressed is: why was coronary artery (heart) disease and in fact all arterial disease virtually unknown until well into this century? Diagnostic and post mortem techniques were not so primitive that they could not assess the cause of death in most cases.
Evidence mounts that the answer lies at the door of modern diet and lifestyle. Fast foods, a high intake of animal and dairy fats and worse, artificially produced dairy substitutes, plus the huge increase in sugar consumption and in canned, packaged and processed foods (with their high salt content and cocktail of chemical preservatives) are all contributory. Our sedentary, often high pressure lifestyles and modern industrial pollution add two final straws.
But what of the vast tracts of population caught between the pages of the revolution? We may have dropped, through no real fault of our own, six, seven or eight of our nine stitches and may not have much time, arterially speaking, to undo what we have smoked, eaten, drunk and breathed for several decades. Are we doomed to have radical surgery one day on the one or two inches of arteries serving the vital organs of the heart, brain or legs – reconstructing them by bypass surgery techniques or blasting them open by angioplasty while there remain some 29,999.999 miles of arteries in similar poor shape? Surely this would equate with putting a good patch on the worst puncture of a perished rubber tyre. In fact the analogy is a particularly good one, because rubber perishes in a process not unlike that which happens to the artery walls as we age – and indeed to all other tissues in the body.
*4/104/2*

Prinzide (Lisinopril, Hydrochlorothiazide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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UNDERSTANDING HEART DISEASE AND AGEING: THE CHANGING FACE OF HEALTH CARE
There is a revolution going on in health and new information is coming up thick and fast. It is information which will ultimately change the whole face of health care. To give a practical example of the magnitude of this change, it is being confidently posited by health scientists on the frontiers that vitamins and vitamin therapy will largely take over from drugs and be our new ‘medicine’. (NB: In America sales of vitamins to the public have been controlled since 1993. One can only assume that in the face of overwhelming evidence which has been gathering for two or three decades that health authorities are sensing where the new wealth in health will be and are stepping in to control it. There are attempts to do likewise in the European Union.)
Another acknowledged health trend for the future is the adoption of prevention as an active principle in health care (i.e. a stitch in time saves nine) rather than the intervention (last ditch) system we have now. In terms of heart and arterial health this may mean starting much earlier than was previously thought to be necessary if we are to reverse this socially destructive trend.
When it is remembered that arterial disease can remain undiscovered until arteries are up to 90 per cent blocked this is more easily understood, but does this state of affairs have to be? Must we wait until bypass surgery, angioplasty and other interventive surgical measures, themselves carrying a significant element of risk, can offer us only a small extension of life, a stay of execution?
*3/104/2*

Caduet (Amlodipine Besylate, Atorvastatin Calcium)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

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CHOOSING RIGHT FOOD TO CONTROL YOUR WEIGHT: SUGAR, FIBER, CONVENIENCE FOODS AND SNACKS
Sugar
Huge increases in the amount of sugar that modern people eat have stirred many nutritionists to issue warnings against excess sugar. The Department of Agriculture reports that annual consumption of sugar rose from 87.5 pounds a person in 1909 to 142 pounds a person by 1983. (Most of this sugar is hidden in processed foods.) Since then sugar consumption has leveled off, but the use of non-caloric sweeteners has skyrocketed.
Sugar does not actually lead to disease, except for tooth decay. It provokes symptoms in diabetes; it does not cause diabetes. But sugar contains only empty calories-it provides no vitamins, protein, or fiber, all essential to a healthy diet. And if you eat a lot of sugar, you are taking in calories that could be better divided among foods with important nutrients.
Fiber
Americans need to eat more complex carbohydrates-starches such as potatoes, rice, and pasta-and fiber. Fiber is the indigestible (but not inedible!) part of all plant foods. It’s what your mother called “roughage.” Scientists now say that a diet rich in fiber and complex starches may protect against cancer, bowel disease, diabetes, and other ailments. The average American gets about 10 to 20 grams of fiber a day-less than an ounce. Many experts recommend between 30 and 40 grams. You get fiber from fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dried beans, peas, lentils, nuts, and seeds.
Convenience Foods
We Americans depend more on processed foods today than ever before. Almost half the calories we eat comes in foods that have been prepared fully or partially outside the home, reports a team of food scientists from Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Food experts call these “convenience foods” and break them down into three types:
1. Basic convenience (17 percent of all calories consumed by Americans today) foods include processed cheeses, powdered milk, quick-cooking cereals, peanut butter, as well as canned and frozen fruits, vegetables, and juices.
2. Complex convenience (27 percent of our total calories) foods are salad dressings, frozen desserts, baking mixes, hot dogs and luncheon meats, and ready-to-eat canned and frozen meals.
3. Manufactured convenience (12 percent of our total calories) foods are those with no home-prepared counterpart, such as ready-to-eat cereals, sodas, breakfast toaster pastries, and soy-based infant formula.
Snacks
No scientific evidence indicates that snacking leads to obesity or any other unhealthy condition. Some nutritionists, in fact, advocate several small meals during the day to reduce appetite.
Betty Peterkin of the Department of Agriculture says that, as a nation, our snacking habits changed very little between the 1960s and the 1970s. On average, people eat three to five times a day and get 20 percent of their calories from snacks. Children and teenagers snack the most.
Dr. Karen Morgan, of the University of Missouri at Columbia, has studied snacking extensively. “Where and when foods were consumed had very limited impact on their nutritional status,” she says.
*1/266/5*