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Archive for the ‘Antibiotics’ Category

Noroxin (Norfloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Noroxin(Norfloxacin)
HEADACHES: KINDS AND CLASSIFICATION
Classification of headaches into three groups is an oversimplification. Some people have both migraine and cluster headaches, or tension headaches alternating with migraines. After years of arguing over how to diagnose headaches, the specialists got together in 1988 and issued a standard manual that covers nearly 100 different kinds of headaches.
“For the first time, we have criteria for diagnosing headaches,” says Dr. Lipton of Montefiore. This “headache bible” will allow researchers to know that they are all talking about the same kind of headache.
There are as many theories on the origin of headaches as there are headache specialists. There is agreement that the brain itself isn’t hurting, because the brain has no nerves for experiencing pain. However, the arteries in the brain do have pain nerves. If something hurts or inflames them, the arteries transmit pain signals to the conscious center of the brain. That may be why headaches throb. Every time your heart pumps, it sends blood pulsing through the arteries, stretching them. With each stretch, you sense a pain signal if the artery hurts.
But what inflames the arteries? Some evidence suggests that changes in the amounts of various brain chemicals may do it. Dr. Michael Welch, chief neurologist at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, has focused high-tech attention and equipment on this problem.
Using an instrument sensitive to magnetism, Dr. Welch follows changes in the brain’s magnetic field during a headache. He says he thinks he can see the brain respond to the factors that trigger a headache. Another instrument helped him discover that magnesium drops to low levels in the brain before and during a migraine attack. In a third technique, he follows the ebb and flow of blood in the brain before, during, and after a headache.
Dr. Welch and Dr. Sandra Nagel-Leiby work at putting the pieces together to reveal a picture of headaches – how they vary, who gets them, and why. It turns out that all of us can suffer from a headache. Some of us are more susceptible. Older individuals get more headaches, and so do women (menstruation increases risk of headache). Those who suffer from chronic stress at work or home, or who take oral contraceptives, are prone to headaches.
With a lowered resistance to headaches, other events trigger the actual pain. Chocolate, cheese, wine, and other foods that contain substances, such as tyrarnine, can touch off a headache. Acute stress – from an auto accident or from taking an important examination, for example – can do the same. Glaring light can spark the pains. So can certain drugs, unfortunate combinations of drugs, or a blow to the head.
*3/266/5*

Cefepime

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO SNORING: MUSCLE CONTROL, ALCOHOL
AND MEDICATIONS
Muscle control
There may also be functional changes in the control of those very important muscles which keep the airways open when a breath is taken in. If these muscles are weakened or, if they become unsynchronized with inspiratory and expiratory efforts, then the pharynx may collapse.
Alcohol
Many snorers are both surprised and disappointed to learn that alcohol worsens their condition. It causes depression of the respiratory control centre of the brain, weakens those important dilating muscles of the upper airway and promotes swelling of the surrounding tissue. For the committed drinker, total alcohol avoidance is a bitter pill to swallow but must be considered seriously by those suffering the effects of repeated airway obstruction. At the very least, alcohol should be avoided several hours before sleep.
Medications
Some commonly used medications are also known to exacerbate snoring, many of which are prescribed for the treatment of poor sleep (insomnia) or nervous and anxiety related disorders. Ironically, heavy snoring and repetitive airway obstruction can be very disruptive to sleep with many sufferers resorting to the use of “sleeping pills” to solve the problem, a course which invariably aggravates the situation. The effects of sedatives, tranquilizers or muscle relaxants should be kept in mind by those who have a snoring problem, particularly if taken immediately prior to, or during the sleeping hours. Where such medication results in a worsening of symptoms relating to snoring and sleep quality, a doctor should be consulted to reassess not only the underlying cause of snoring, but also the role of the medication in question.
*6/130/5*

Adoxa (Doxycycline)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Adoxa(Doxycycline)
Other names: Doryx, Monodox, Periostat, Vibramycin, Vibra-tab
PREVENTION OF ASTHMA IN CHILDREN WITH USE OF INHALED MEDICATION
Simon’s attacks were much more frequent and although he responded well to Intal his father thought he still had a tendency to wheeze at times, especially at night. It seemed that Simon, as well as having marked spasm of his breathing tubes, also had a degree of swelling of their linings.
For this I recommended adding the other type of preventive inhaler which contains a steroid. His parents immediately expressed dismay at the thought of this as they had heard of some of the less desirable effects steroids can have on the body. While it is true that when taken by mouth for long periods of time they can affect growth in children, this is not so in the inhaled form. As I have mentioned the real benefit of inhaling a medication straight into the lungs is that it is not absorbed into the rest of the body so side-effects do not occur. Steroids given in this way are therefore harmless.
This inhaler, the commonest of which is called Becotide 50, is different to the spinhaler in that it is a pressurized aerosol, and it is not necessary to insert a capsule as the powder is already contained in the barrel of the inhaler itself. By inserting one end into the mouth and as you breathe in pressing the bottom a set dose of medication is released and automatically inhaled. This is much easier than ‘messing about’ putting in a capsule but there are two potential disadvantages. First, it is necessary to ensure that the inhaler is activated just as you are breathing in or else the powder will not pass to the lungs. Second, even using the correct method the powder may come out with such force that some of it will hit the back of the throat and not go into the lungs. However, even with these drawbacks it is still a most effective treatment and in Simon’s case the simple addition of two puffs twice a day stopped the underlying wheeze.
So now we can start to build up our complete treatment plan. We know that to prevent an asthma attack we should first use Intal and add Becotide if it is ineffective. Sometimes if there is still insufficient control it may be necessary to increase the strength of the steroid to Becotide 100. Very occasionally children are unable to use the inhaler correctly and then it may be necessary to change to a diskhaler where the steroid is in powder form. This is sucked into the lungs as they breathe in but does not rely on coordinating breathing in with operating the device. The disadvantage is the same as for Intal, i.e. special discs containing the powder have to be loaded into the diskhaler.
Although delighted at their respective children’s improvements, both sets of parents were worried as to how they could tell in the very early stages if the preventive treatment is insufficient. Obviously it is easy to tell if the child starts to wheeze but it would be much better if an impending asthma attack could be diagnosed some time before the wheeze starts. In general the quicker the treatment is started the faster the attack will settle. The easiest way of telling is by the appearance of an irritating cough, which means the airways are becoming twitchy and may soon tighten up. In my own three children, especially Ross and Tina, the cough is very pronounced and gives us about two hours to reverse the situation before the shortness of breath begins.
However, this cough is not always present and a far more active way of showing that problems with breathing are starting is by the use of a peak flow meter. This is a small portable plastic device which in essence measures the amount of air which can be forcibly blown out of the lungs.
The peak flow meter is a vital piece of equipment and no child with asthma should be without one. They can now be obtained on prescription from your doctor. The end of the tube with the mouthpiece is placed between the lips and a deep breath in is taken. The child then breathes out as hard as possible and the force of this exhalation pushes a pointer up the scale. If the breathing tubes are tightening up, i.e. they are becoming narrower than normal, then the child will be unable to blow as much air into the peak flow meter and a lower reading on the scale will be produced. The measurement that can be achieved depends on age, height and sex, so it will vary for each child. The readings are usually constant at a certain figure, and if they then start to decrease it indicates that the airways are starting to narrow and an asthma attack is on the way. In general the breathing tubes are naturally a little narrower at night than during the day, so another pointer is if this gap in readings between the morning and evening starts to widen. (This also explains why asthma attacks tend to be worse at night.)
*14/211/5*

Zyvox (Linezolid)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zyvox(Linezolid)
CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
Vitamins are a group of substances which are essential for the life and well-being of our bodies; this particularly applies to the immune system. Growing children are very susceptible to vitamin deficiencies – only minute daily amounts are necessary but with the present method of preserving food these are often lost.
Vitamin A is found in milk, eggs and red vegetables such as carrots. The В vitamins, of which there are several, occur in wholegrain cereals, yeast and green leafy vegetables. Deficiency in both A and В reduces the production of the cells in the immune system which will fight off invaders before they have the opportunity to take hold. Vitamin C, which is found in fresh fruit and vegetables, is the third important supplement, as it specifically helps the immune system to kill invading viruses. The common cold, which often precedes an asthma attack, is particularly sensitive to increased doses of vitamin С. In addition it increases the ability to capture and destroy any other infections that actually gain a hold on the body.
*19/211/5*

Levaquin (Levofloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Levaquin(Levofloxacin)
ACUTE CONFUSION: LIST OF DRUGS CAUSING CONFUSION
Some drugs are well known for their ability to cause confusional states in elderly people and if prescribed the person and carers should be warned to be on their guard and contact their doctor early if confusion does occur. All of the drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease can cause confusion, especially a group of drugs called anticholinesterases, e.g. benzhexol and drugs containing L-dopa. The effects of these drugs are reversible by lowering the dose or stopping the drug under the doctors’ advice. Steroids are very powerful drugs used for treating many conditions. These drugs must never be stopped suddenly, and so if confusion occurs a doctor must advise on the best course of action. Water-tablets (diuretics) are used in the treatment of heart-failure when there is an excess of fluid in the body. They can be gentle or very powerful but all have the potential of depleting the body of salts (sodium and potassium) and if taken for too long or in too high a dose of causing dehydration. Both side-effects can cause confusion in the old. Rarely, they are given (or taken) for the wrong reasons, such as to cause weight loss or decrease swollen ankles. They should not be used for either (swollen legs alone in the elderly is usually due to lack of mobility and the legs should be raised on a stool).
Drugs should always be implicated when a confusional state occurs. It is highly likely that all drugs can cause confusion so they must all be regarded with suspicion. When starting a drug both doctor and patient should know why the drug is being given, how long the course of treatment will be, and what are the possible side-effects. For elderly people it is a good idea for GPs to issue prescription cards listing current medication, dose and length of course. Hospital admission often results in new medication. Ideally the same drug card should be used so that both patient and GP know what new medication has been given from the day of discharge. It has been said that if all the drugs known to man were thrown into the sea, it would be a good day for mankind and a very poor one for the sea.
The following is a list of drugs (including both medical and trade names) known to cause confusion in some elderly people.
• Painkillers/analgesics
DF 118/dihydrocodeine
Fortral/pentazocine
Co-Dydramol/dihydrocodeine + paracetamol
• Muscle relaxants
Lioresal/baclofen
• Corticosteroids/steroids
prednisolone (many trade names)
• H2 blockers/gastric acid reducers
Tagamet/cimetidine
Zantac/ranitidine
• Drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease
Artane/benzhexol
Disipal/orphenadrine
Madopar/levodopa + benserazide
Sinemet/levodopa + carbidopa
Selegiline/Eldepryl
• Hypnotics/Sedatives
Dalmane/flurazepam
Mogadon/nitrazepam
Diazepam/Valium
Tranxene/clorazepate potassium
Librium/chlordiazepoxide
Alcohol
• Diabetes mellitus
Insulin (various types)
Diabinese/chlorpropamide
Daonil/glibenclamide
Diamicron/gliclazide
Gilbenese/glipizide
Rastinon/tolbutamide
Glucophage/metformin
*5/128/5*

Crixivan (Indinavir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Crixivan(Indinavir)
NUTRITIONAL PLANNING: FOUR FOOD GROUPS
If you have calculated the nutritive value of a diet for one day, you would agree that this is somewhat time consuming. Fortunately, some short cuts have been developed. The Four Food Groups is a useful guide when properly used.
Milk group
2 cups for adults
2 to 3 cups for children under 9 years
3 to 4 cups for children 9 to 12 years 3 to 4 cups for teenagers
3 cups or more for pregnant women
4 cups or more for lactating women
Meat group
2 servings. Count as one serving:
2 to 3 ounces lean, cooked beef, veal, pork, lamb, poultry, fish – without bone
2 eggs
1 cup cooked dry beans, dry peas, lentils
4 tablespoons peanut butter
Vegetable-fruit group
4 or more servings per day, including: serving of citrus fruit, or other fruit or vegetable as a good source of vitamin C, or 2 servings of a fair source
1 serving, at least every other day, of a dark green or deep yellow vegetable for vitamin A
2 or more servings of other vegetables and fruits, including potatoes
Bread-cereals group
4 or more servings daily (whole grain, enriched, or restored). Count as one serving:
1 slice bread
1 ounce ready-to-eat cereal
1/2 to 3/4 cup cooked cereal, corn meal, grits, macaroni, noodles, rice, or spaghetti
Each of the food groups includes a variety of foods that contribute important nutrients. No single food group furnishes all needed nutrients. Nor are all foods in each group equally valuable for their nutrients. Therefore’, in menu planning from day to day choices should be made from a wide variety of foods that belong to these groups.
The Four Food Groups have been criticized for a number of reasons. (1) They are only an approximate measure of the nutritive quality of the diet. They do not guarantee that the recommended allowances will be met for all nutrients; for example, iron for women.
(2) It is difficult to use the groupings when food mixtures or many new foods in the market are used. For example, into which group or groups would you place lasagna or pizza? (3) Substantial modifications would be required if the Dietary Goals are to be implemented.
*18/234/5*

Terramycin (Oxytetracycline)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
NUTRIENTS AND THEIR UTILIZATION: ABSORPTION
Absorption is the process whereby the nutrients released from food by digestion are transferred from the intestinal lumen into the blood and lymph circulation. The intestinal wall is lined with 4 to 5 million tiny fingerlike projections called villi. Each villus is a complex organ with a surface layer of epithelium over a layer of connective tissue (lamina propria) that is supplied with capillaries and lacteals. On the surface of each villus are 500 to 600 microvilli, also known as the brush border. Thus, the villi and microvilli give an immense surface area through which nutrients can be absorbed – an area comparable to the size of a third of a football field!
The nutrients are carried across the epithelial cell walls by several complex processes. Small particles such as glucose and some minerals can move from an area of greater concentration to one of lesser concentration by passive diffusion; this accounts for only a small part of absorption. Some nutrients must be attached to a carrier before they can be ferried across the cell membrane.
One of the most complex examples of a nutrient attached to a carrier is vitamin B12. This vitamin must be attached to a factor produced in the stomach known as intrinsic factor, but it is not absorbed until it reaches the ileum. Most of the nutrients must be “pumped” across the cell wall by active transport. This requires energy which is supplied by glucose in the cell.
From the lamina propria the fatty acids, some molecules of fat and fat-soluble vitamins enter the lacteals and enter into the lymph circulation. Glucose, amino acids, mineral salts, and water-soluble vitamins enter into the blood capillaries and are carried by the portal circulation to the liver.
*15/234/5*

Cipro (Ciprofloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cipro(Ciprofloxacin)
Other names: Baycip -TZ
FOOD AND TRANS FATTY ACIDS
Food processing techniques have particularly hit the alpha-linolenic acid family. Unfortunately, because of its instability, food manufacturers usually try and stabilize it by hydrogenating it, which gives it a longer shelf life. But this leads to loss of its EFA activity.
It has been argued that the fall in intake of biologically active EFAs of the alpha-linolenic acid family has been one of the major changes in western nutrition in the last 50 years. Trans fatty acids also depress the formation of prostaglandins, which suggests that they have an effect not just at the first step in the metabolic pathway, but at later stages too.
Here is a table from the United States which shows the percentages of trans fatty acids in foodstuffs.
• Bakery products - up to 38.5%
• Sweets - up to 38.6%
• French fries - up to 37.4%
• Hard margarines - up to 36%
• Soft margarines - up to 21.3%
• Diet margarines - up to 17.9%
• Vegetable oils - up to 13.7%
• Vegetable oil cooking fats – up to 37.3%
The cockeyed thing is that when government and other bodies involved in the nation’s nutrition examine the amounts of lipids (fats) people are eating, they often lump together both trans and cis fatty acids, perhaps not being fully aware that trans fatty acids may as well not be counted for all the nutritional good they do. This means that the overall intake of real essential fatty acids is lower than we have been led to believe.
It’s interesting to ponder the fact that it’s only since the 1920s that significant amounts of trans fatty acids began to be added to the diet (though they have always existed in small amounts in dairy produce). People who are interested in the geographical distribution and the increase in diseases of western civilization might find this worthy of more research. Trans fatty acids are by no means the only blocking agents, but they are the ones which cause innocent eaters to fall into the trap of thinking they’re eating the right things when in fact they’re eating the wrong things.
*6/60/5*

Trimox

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA: CHEST WALL MOVEMENT AND HEART MONITORING
Chest wall movement: Obstructive and Central
The two broad categories of sleep apnoea, central and obstructive, are defined by the type of respiratory efforts made. One way of measuring this is to look at the movement of the chest wall as it expands and contracts with each breath, in conjunction with a detector of airflow at the opening of the nasal passage. When the upper airway collapses in obstructive sleep apnoea, the chest wall continues to move but there will be no detectable airflow through the nose. Falling oxygen levels stimulate the patient to take bigger breaths resulting in ever increasing signals from the monitor of chest wall movement. Eventually the obstruction is overcome, airflow is again detected and breathing returns to normal until the next obstructive event. With central apnoea, the chest wall shows little or no sign of movement, indicating an absence of respiratory effort. This is also accompanied by a cessation of airflow.
Heart monitoring
The final obligatory assault comes in the form of a heart monitor (or ECG), the electrodes of which are attached to the chest. The ECG records the heart rate and provides information about the electrical impulses which stimulate the heart to beat regularly.
The process of “wiring up” for a sleep study can be an intimidating experience for those with an innate fear of hospitals and high technology. A small percentage of patients never relax enough to get a good night’s sleep, but most adapt quickly to the novel circumstances and sleep soundly enough for the purpose of the investigation. In this respect, patients with advanced OSA have no problems, often falling asleep while being attached to their monitoring equipment.
The capacity to measure oxygen saturation, sleep states, chest wall movement, nasal airflow and heart rate is a minimum requirement for a unit specializing in sleep-related breathing disorders. Some units, however, are capable of measuring other parameters of sleep and breathing and have the resources to screen several patients on the same night.
*15/130/5*

Zithromax (Azithromycin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zithromax(Azithromycin)
CHRONIC CONFUSION
Chronic confusion is defined as a confusional state that lasts longer than three months. There are many causes of chronic, long-term confusion that can be reversed or greatly helped. The main differentiation, though, is between these treatable causes and the conditions known as ‘dementia’.
Chronic confusional states are very important because of the reversible causes – no one should be diagnosed ‘demented’ until they have had a thorough screening for the treatable conditions. The diagnosis can often be very difficult and need more than one period of assessment; for example, because of the time scale involved it is often difficult for carers to pinpoint when things started to go wrong. There is no delirium, as in acute confusional states, and the problems vary with the underlying diagnosis. Memory loss and disorientation are common but often the presentation is of someone failing to cope at home. The condition ‘failure to cope’ should always ring alarm bells.
The following is a list of conditions which will be discussed further. Many of them are entirely reversible, some not so. An accurate diagnosis of the confusion has marked implications for both the sufferer and carers. The discussion includes diagnosis (both by carer and doctor) and treatment.
• Hypothyroidism
• Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency
• Syphilis
• Depression
• Head injury and brain tumour (benign and malignant)
• Normal pressure hydrocephalus
• Parkinson’s disease
• Alcohol
*15/128/5*

Biaxin (Clarithromycin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Biaxin(Clarithromycin)
CHRONIC CONFUSION: HEAD INJURY
A confusional state following a head injury must always be taken seriously and it is important to note that confusion can occur after the event. Head trauma can be dangerous because the injury may have caused bleeding on the surface of the brain under the bone (subdural or extradural hematoma). If the bleeding is severe it will become apparent at the time, the person becomes rapidly unwell and either going unconscious or looking as if they have had a stroke. Some bleeding is less severe at the time and the person appears to recover from the injury, only to run into problems later. The symptoms can vary from bouts of drowsiness (fluctuating consciousness) to episodic or chronic confusional states. The collection of blood is best shown up using a CT scan (computerized tomography) where a computerized assisted machine gives a form of X-ray picture with ‘slice’ views of the brain. If the collection of blood is large it should be drained by a neurosurgical operation. Recovery can be complete but does depend on the degree of damage sustained.
*20/128/5*

Minomycin (Minocycline Hydrochloride)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Minomycin(MinocyclineHydrochloride)
Other names: Minocin
DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES IN EMBRYO
Striking changes in the embryo occur early and rapidly. I have before me a picture of one eight weeks old. The youngster already has arms, legs, eyes and ears. But what impresses one most is the great bulging forehead reminding one of the erudite Boston boy of the cartoons and apparently at this stage giving a portent that he is to become homo sapiens, the wise man.
The story of the development of the multitudinous parts of the body is of necessity complicated and fills large books. Remembering that it was said earlier that the embryo in developing follows the pattern of the development of the race, it is not remarkable that some parts form early and later cease to exist. Examples are the tail and gill clefts in the neck. Other parts continue to exist but in a degenerated form. In some animals the appendix is large and apparently useful. It seems to be a continuation of the part of the large intestine to which it is attached. I have seen no good argument that it is of value in the human body and it certainly is often a great nuisance. Perhaps at some future period it will cease to develop.
Another vestige sometimes remaining, although it is uncommon, is a Meckel’s diverticulum. The German anatomist, Meckel, was the first to describe a pouch occasionally found leading from the small intestine about a foot from the appendix. The intestine twists about so that the two organs may be almost touching each other. The diverticulum is the remains of a yolk sac. Now a yolk sac is important to a developing chick, as it contains the material from which the the chick is built. Although we get our nourishment from mothers’ blood through the placenta, nevertheless we have a yolk sac in early life. So do apes, bats, and armadillos. It looks as though we could not duck our connection with these poor relations. Fortunately this yolk sac which joins with the intestine usually withers up and disappears long before we are born.
*5/276/5*

Ceftin (Cefuroxime)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Ceftin(Cefuroxime)
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL AND HYPERACTIVE CHILDREN
Evening primrose oil has helped to improve dramatically the lives of countless children and their families. Together with other nutritional approaches, it can help turn a little monster into a normal, happy, loving child.
It seems that evening primrose oil works especially well on atopic children where there is a family history of such ailments as eczema, asthma, allergies, hay fever or migraine. The mothers of hyperactive children are often found to have migraine, and to have suffered from premenstrual tension and post-natal depression.
In a questionnaire conducted by the Hyperactive Children’s Support Group (HACSG) in February 1987, a total of 92% of the children came from an atopic family. Of these 102 children, 34% suffered from either one or both of eczema and asthma.
Not all hyperactive children respond to evening primrose oil. One sign that they may do so is excessive thirst. In the HACSG study 78% of the children did have abnormal thirst. Unlike in diabetes, this need to drink a lot is not accompanied by excessive urine. Instead, the urine is rather concentrated which probably means that these children are losing water through the skin. Excessive thirst and permeability of the skin are signs of essential fatty acid deficiency.
*19/60/5*

Chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Chloromycetin(Chloramphenicol)
CAUSES OF ACUTE CONFUSION: STROKE
To most people a ‘stroke’ means a sudden weakness down one side of the body due to a clot of blood in the brain. In fact there are many types of stroke. The full blown stroke, where the weakness is very obvious, can be due to a clot of blood but is most commonly due to a gradual furring-up of an important blood vessel; finally the remaining narrow passage blocks and no more blood can reach that bit of the brain. Occasionally the stroke is due to a blood vessel rupturing (like the blow-out of a car tyre) and this is usually due to a past history of high blood pressure. All of the above types of stroke happen quite quickly and can be fatal. The many who survive often take many weeks or months to recover the use of their limbs and sometimes speech.
It is now recognized that not all strokes are as major as these. In elderly people especially small strokes can occur without any great weakness of the arms or legs being noticed. It is thought that the furred-up blood vessels cause very small clots of blood to form. These small clots get carried to the brain. If big enough they can cause slight weakness of an arm or leg (or both) but this usually goes within about 24 hours. Sometimes they cause no weakness at all but make the person confused. This too often passes but as the clots recur the same thing happens again, sometimes accompanied by blackouts or falls. This condition can be difficult to diagnose unless some weakness is seen or found or the person is known to have affected blood vessels.
These repeated mini-strokes or TIA’s (transient ischemic attacks) are important for many reasons. They sometimes occur before a major stroke, and hence give a warning so that treatable causes of major strokes can be looked for. In their own right, however, they can be treated by taking a small dose of soluble aspirin a day (the aspirin makes the blood less sticky and less likely to form clots), and there are other drugs for people who cannot take aspirin for medical reasons. The repeated small strokes always cause some brain damage and if enough occur over a long time a form of dementia can be produced.
*6/128/5*

Cleocin (Clindamycin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Cleocin(Clindamycin)
SNORING IN CHILDREN
As with adults, the differentiation between mild snoring and OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnoea) in children ultimately depends on the results of overnight studies in hospital. However, a clue to the need for further investigation is provided by the observation of certain behavioural changes. Snoring accompanied by laboured breathing and frequent arousals is suggestive of OSA. Sleep disruption then manifests itself as lethargy, sleepiness, irritability and possible learning difficulties and behavioural problems at home and at school. The weight and stature of these children often falls behind that of their peers, commonly referred to as a “failure to thrive”.
Hospital or sleep unit admission screens for the same physiological changes seen in adults with OSA, with blood oxygen saturation being the most important measure of airway obstruction. The options available for treatment of heavy snoring or OSA in children are not as diverse as those available for adults. Middle-aged, overweight adults with the problem show considerable improvement with weight loss and alcohol avoidance, conditions which may be difficult to enforce or which simply do not apply to young children. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CRAP) applied through a nose mask has been used successfully on infants and older children, but in general cooperation by younger people who are unaware of its benefits remains a problem.
In summary, snoring in children is fairly common. Parents should not be alarmed by mild snoring but should consult their doctor if sleep disruption or difficult breathing becomes a regular feature at night.
*18/130/5*

Suprax (Cefixime)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Suprax(Cefixime)
NUTRITION AS A SCIENCE
Throughout all of history man has written about food and its effects on the body. Ancient Egyptian writings on tablets of stone record the use of food for the treatment of numerous diseases. In the Old Testament of the Bible we can learn much about the foods available to the Jewish people, the religious symbolism of food, and the laws governing the use of food. Hippocrates, the famous Greek physician who lived several hundred years before Christ, wrote of the proper foods for treating disease. He observed, “Persons who are naturally very fat are apt to die earlier than those who are slender.” The thinking of Hippocrates, Galen, and other philosophers governed the whole practice of medicine down through the Middle Ages.
People have learned through the ages that some foods were more nourishing than others, and that some plants were, in fact, poisonous and could not be eaten. Along with this experience a great deal of superstition about foods also arose. Some of these false notions are believed even today by many people.
The science of nutrition developed only after the groundwork had been laid for the sciences of chemistry and physiology, and had its beginnings in the late eighteenth century – just about the time of the American Revolution. Most of the understanding of the functions of the nutrients in the body, the nutritive values of foods, the body’s requirements for nutrients, and the role of nutrition in health and disease belongs to the last 60 or 70 years. It must be emphasized that nutrition is indeed one of the youngest of sciences, and that much still remains to be learned.
Scientists learn about nutrition through laboratory studies on experimental animals, using rats, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, chickens, dogs, cattle, and even microorganisms. Many studies have likewise been conducted on healthy human volunteers, since not all of the results obtained on animals can be applied directly to humans.
Studies conducted on animals and on humans usually measure certain physical changes; for example, growth in height and weight, skin condition, and many other conditions that the researcher can note. The amount of nutrients in the food intake and the amount of specific substances excreted in the urine and feces are measured in balance experiments. Thus, if the intake and excretions are equal, the subject is said to be in balance, or in equilibrium. Many constituents may also be measured in the blood and tissues, for changes in diet will, sooner or later, bring about changes in the level of certain substances in the blood. The techniques of the physician, biologist, physiologist, chemist, and nutritionist are required in nutrition research.
*3/234/5*

Avelox (Moxifloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Avelox(Moxifloxacin)
TESTS FOR ASTHMA IN CHILDREN: TO TEST OR NOT TO TEST
If you are not sure which to have, let us briefly go through the different tests again and I will explain my personal feelings on them. If your child is fit and active between attacks I can’t see a particular reason for a routine blood test. It is unpleasant to have done and there is no real gain. While it will demonstrate the presence of allergy it won’t identify which particular allergen is the criminal. As all asthmatic children have allergies it doesn’t really contribute very much to the management.
Chest infections play no part in the production of an asthma attack so in my mind there is no place for a chest X-ray. The only exception is if your doctor wants to exclude uncommon conditions like cystic fibrosis. Please do not worry about this because it is extremely rare. Not only that but your child would be quite ill and it is not usually necessary to confirm it by X-ray. Skin tests en bloc do not necessarily provide useful information as often the asthmatic child is positive to every allergen tested. I have never seen a child with asthma who wasn’t allergic to house-dust mite and pollen. Where they are particularly useful is in testing for a specific allergy, like Suzie’s allergy to horses. Often the household pets are thought to be the problem but it is important to have positive proof before considering any drastic action.
Lung function tests are vital because not only do they confirm the diagnosis but they show the degree of the condition in everyday life.
So, the most important point in asthma testing is to be selective for your own child. The only essential investigation is that of lung function though selective skin testing can be most valuable. This to me seems a more sensible approach than subjecting your child to unnecessary trauma.
*11/211/5*

Albenza (Albendazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Albenza(Albendazole)
CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: PREVENTION USING INHALED MEDICATION
Asthma is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Over the years medical research has developed drugs which are both safe and effective in preventing the attacks occurring. It may seem strange therefore that the number of hospital admissions – and indeed deaths – is still increasing each year. I am certain the main reason is that parents are reluctant to let their children take medication on a regular basis because of the fear of side-effects. While this is generally an excellent principle, in asthma the situation is different. If a wheezing episode is prevented then not only does it save the child tremendous suffering but it also means that the much stronger drugs which must be used in an attack will not be necessary.
Let us consider Julie aged 4. Following her severe attack Julie’s parents were very concerned that it might happen again – they had been convinced at one stage that their daughter’s life was in danger. However, they were worried about any harmful effects of continuous therapy and asked me to explain the situation fully to them. Fortunately modern drug development has enabled the present preventive medicine to be breathed directly into the lungs using a small device called an inhaler – commonly known as a ‘puffer’. Until this technique was perfected, all anti-asthma drugs had to be given either in medicine or tablet form. These would be ingested in the stomach before passing into the bloodstream and would then travel through every part of the body, producing their various unwanted effects before finally arriving at the lungs. For this reason these drugs were slow to work and often associated with unpleasant side-effects. Contrast this with the newer medications which are inhaled directly to the trouble spot so their mode of action is very fast. As they are not absorbed into the rest of the body there are almost no adverse effects.
I reminded Julie’s parents that there were two main changes in the lungs during an asthma attack. Firstly there is a tightening – or spasm – of the muscles in the breathing tubes, and secondly the lining of these tubes becomes swollen. The effect of both of these factors is to make the airways much narrower, so the child becomes short of breath and wheezy. The preventive medication that has been developed is aimed at stopping this spasm and swelling from developing. It may not be necessary for your own child to have both forms of treatment; in Julie’s case I suggested she should start on an inhaler only to stop the spasm. Particularly effective is a substance known as Intal which must be taken between two and four times a day. When this was discovered it completely revolutionized the management of asthma as here was a method of controlling the condition without the risk of side-effects. It is taken through a special kind of inhaler called a ‘spinhaler’.
Intal is a dry powder, and a measured dose is contained in a small plastic capsule. This is inserted into the spinhaler and is punctured by sliding a small cutting device. The end of the inhaler is then placed in the child’s mouth and when the next breath is taken the Intal powder is sucked into the lungs. I showed Julie how to do this but as often happens in young children she was not very keen at first. This reluctance was easily overcome by attaching a whistle to the end of the spinhaler so when she inhaled a loud whistling sound was produced. Naturally this was great fun and all her previous inhibitions were soon forgotten!
By using this Intal spinhaler three times a day Julie was able easily to control her asthma. Her mother asked how long it would be necessary for Julie to stay on this treatment and I warned both her parents never to become complacent about this condition. The problem with being well controlled is that it is difficult to tell whether the child has grown out of the asthma or if the improvement is solely a result of treatment. It is vital therefore never to stop Intal suddenly, and I usually recommend six months to a year of continuous use, free from attacks, before a reduction is made. Even then it is important to reduce the doses in stages.
Generally Intal is very easy to use, but one of the difficulties I found at home with my children was that if the capsules became damp, the cutting device in the spinhaler would not puncture the plastic. The design does not allow you to see if this has happened and sometimes my son Ross would become exasperated when sucking away at his inhaler only to find nothing coming out.’ There is no option when this happens but to go back to your doctor for another prescription. The capsules are supplied in a damp-proof container, but children tend to forget and leave the top loose which allows the moisture to seep in.
*13/211/5*

Duricef (Cefadroxil)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Duricef(Cefadroxil)
BRINGING UP BABIES: CHALLENGE TO PARENTS; NATURES MARVEL
A challenge to parents
All this has to do with the physical side, but if one is to believe thoroughly what one reads in modern psychiatric writing, the offspring, personally conducted by the mother through the early part of life’s journey, often is wrecked on the Scylla of personal animosity or the Charybdis of too much attachment and dependence. It seems hard to believe that many mothers actually dislike their young children and act accordingly. More often it is an example of a common human failing, the overdoing of a good thing.
The mother, who of necessity must absolutely dominate the infant of a few months, may arouse resentment if she continues to do so when the child is developing its own ideas and most naturally wants to be on its own some of the time. Also the emotional, fussy mother, changing her child’s apparel every time the sun goes behind a cloud, or producing a thermometer whenever the child’s face is red from exercise, may be very exasperating and upsetting to the child’s equanimity.
Healthy youngsters can stand a good deal. If they are sick, they show it by their actions. In my early manhood I wondered at children playing for long hours in the cold water of the North side of Cape Cod, which quickly chilled me. Some of them are healthy grandparents now.
What were formerly the gravest dangers to childhood, the infections, have been largely eliminated in a lifetime by sanitation, assisted in the last few years by the new drugs. I am speaking, of course, of the more fortunate parts of the world. Children now have an extraordinary chance to grow up. The problem from here on in is to train the parents so that they will train the children that they may justify the upbringing.
Natures marvel
Any child at birth has progressed a tremendous distance since the instant when the sperm united with the ovum. Quantitatively, the multiplication of its cells has gone into astronomical figures; the growth by division of this living matter is one of nature’s marvels. Qualitatively, the diversification of the cells, all coming from the original union, is still more incomprehensible. We can get faint glimpses only of why some cells turn into long black hair, others into a powerful heart muscle, still others into a brain that may turn out to reason as wisely as a Darwin. How are all these diverse, complicated possibilities contained in a sperm and an ovum? The part of man’s brain, which is the home of the higher intellectual activities, contains an estimated nine thousand millions nerve cells, but he cannot answer this question.
*12/276/5*

Keflex (Cephalexin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Keflex(Cephalexin)
Other names: Keftab, Biocef
EVERYTHING ABOUT VITAMINS: PABA [PARA-AMINOBENZOIC ACID], VITAMIN T AND VITAMIN U
Facts:
Water soluble, one of the newer members of the B-complex family.
Usually measured in milligrams [mg.].
Can be synthesized in the body.
No RDA has yet been established.
Helps form folic acid and is important in the utilization of protein.
Has important sun-screening properties.
Helps in the assimilation – and therefore the effectiveness – of pantothenic acid.
In experiments with animals, it has worked with pantothenic acid to restore grey hair to its natural colour.
What It Can Do For You:
Used as an ointment it can protect against sunburn.
Reduce the pain of burns.
Keep skin healthy and smooth.
Help in delaying wrinkles.
Help to restore natural colour to your hair.
Deficiency Disease:
Eczema.
Best Natural Sources:
Liver, brewer’s yeast, kidney, whole grains, rice, bran, wheat germ and molasses.
Supplements:
30 to 100 mg. are often included in good B-complex capsules as well as high-quality multi-vitamins.
Available in 30 to 1,000-mg strengths in regular and time-release form.
Doses most often used are 30 to 100 mg. three times a day.
Toxicity:
No known toxic effects, but long-term programmes of high dosages are not recommended.
Symptoms that might indicate an oversupply of PABA are usually nausea and vomiting.
Enemies:
Water, sulphur, drugs, food-processing techniques, alcohol, oestrogen.
Personal Advice:
Some people claim that the combination of folic acid and PABA has returned their greying hair to its natural colour. It has worked on animals, so it is certainly worth a try for anyone looking for an alternative to hair dye. For this purpose, 1,000 mg. [time release] daily for six days a week is a viable regimen.
If you tend to burn easily in the sun, use PABA as a protective ointment.
Many Hollywood celebrities I know use PABA to prevent wrinkles. It doesn’t eliminate them, but it certainly seems to keep them at bay for some people.
If you are taking penicillin, or any sulpha drug, your PABA intake should be increased through natural foods or supplements.
Vitamin T
There is very little known about this vitamin, except that it helps in blood coagulation and the forming of platelets. Because of these attributes it is important in warding off certain forms of anemia and hemophilia. No RDA has been established, and there are no supplements for the public on the market. It is found in sesame seeds and egg yolks, and there is no known toxicity.
Vitamin U
Even less is known about vitamin U than vitamin T. It is reputed to play an important role in healing ulcers, but medical opinions vary on this. It is found in raw cabbage and no known toxicity exists.
*33/134/5*