Language
Pills Search
Language
Categories
  • +Anti-Allergic/Asthma (33)
  • +Anti-Depressant (39)
  • +Anti-Herpes (2)
  • +Anti-Infectives (31)
  • +Anti-Smoking (2)
  • Antibiotics (43)
  • +Cancer (11)
  • +Cardio & Blood (95)
  • +Diabetes (23)
  • +Epilepsy (7)
  • +Gastrointestinal (22)
  • +General Health (50)
  • +Hair Loss (1)
  • +Healthy Bones (20)
  • +Herbals (5)
  • +HIV (7)
  • +Hormonal (1)
  • +Men’s Health (17)
  • +Mental Disorders (9)
  • +Pain Relief/Muscle Relaxant (45)
  • +Parkinson And Alzheimer (7)
  • +Sexual Health (2)
  • +Skin Care (16)
  • +Weight Loss (6)
  • +Women’s Health (37)

Archive for the ‘Antibiotics’ Category

Bactrim (Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

XY9RB5JAKA3S
###table###Bactrim(SulfamethoxazoleandTrimethoprim)
Other names: Cotrimoxazole
FOOD MISINFORMATION AND FADDISM
A fad is a style or custom that many people are interested in for a short time. Just as dress fashions come and go, so food fads come and go. Nutritional quackery pertains to false claims made for the health virtues or curative properties of foods.
People often adopt a dietary regimen, or subscribe to claims for specific foods or supplements because someone has told them about the particular virtues, or because they have read about these claims in articles or advertisements. When they have had little or no education in nutrition, they are unable to evaluate whether the claims are justified. Thus, they often fall prey to faddism or quackery. Some dietary fads are harmless. Others create an economic hardship for people of limited income because the foods or supplements may be expensive. Still others are nutritionally inadequate and could lead to serious nutritional deficiencies. Sometimes the harm from a fad comes about because a person substitutes self-therapy for the advice of a physician. By such action he might delay effective treatment until it is too late.
*7/234/5*

Vantin (Cefpodoxime Proxetil)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Vantin(CefpodoximeProxetil)
HEALTHY EYES: GOOD VISION AND ACUITY
How clearly you see is called acuity. But good vision is much more than just clear acuity; it involves a whole spectrum of optical brain skills. Ask yourself the following questions and check your visual skills to find the answers only you can supply:
1. How well can I use both eyes together?
2. How quickly can I judge left from right?
3. How well do I see objects in space?
4. Am I able to shift focus from near to far quickly and easily – within fractions of a second?
5. How retentive is my visual memory?
6. How easily can I change my point of view?
7. Are my visual skills equal to my age and my needs?
8. How well do I check out for the absence of eye disease and acuity on an eye chart?
9. Am I able to get out the good ideas formed in my mind and act on them, or do they get blocked by an inefficient visual system I’ve suspected has been my creative problem?
10. Might visual problems be making me cranky or rigid in my outlook or cause me to seem less intelligent than I am?
Approximately 55 percent of the American population today wears eyeglasses or contact lenses for something more than being fashionable. The use of such external eye aids is equivalent to propping up vision with crutches, braces, wheel chairs, and corsets. Wearing eyeglasses or contacts is in the same league with using dentures, arch supports, hearing aids, molded shoes, and hernia belts. Yet, only about 2 1/2 percent of children are born with true visual deformities. Eye problems seem to be programmed into the human species by the high technology all of us have exposure to.
How we see is largely affected by imperfections built into the eye anatomy. Although in the previous subsection we described components of the normal eye, there is no “perfect” eye. In fact, if you were sold a camera with all the built-in imperfections of the eye, you would likely return to the photography store demanding a refund. Your first developed photographs – using the eye as your camera – would probably be full of distortions.
*5/127/5*

Stromectol (Ivermectin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Stromectol(Ivermectin)
TREATMENT FOR OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA (OSA)
The approach to treatment for OSA depends on the outcome of a sleep study and the prevalence of symptoms. Urgent intervention is called for when frequent and severe hypoxaemia during sleep induces physiological changes which are frankly life-threatening. However, many patients are only mildly symptomatic. There may be small fluctuations in oxygen saturation with negligible or minor physiological consequences, but essentially their problem remains a sociological one with the potential to develop clinical complications if snoring persists over many years. Treatment for these patients is directed at the cause of snoring, where simple measures such as weight loss and alcohol avoidance or surgical procedures, such as tonsillectomy, minimize the possibility of progressively worsening OSA.
There is no clear definition of what constitutes mild, moderate and severe OSA. Guidelines have been published by specialists in the field but there will always be some variation from one physician to another regarding the timing and nature of medical intervention. When a diagnosis of advanced OSA is made, the most popular and effective mode of treatment is the application of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, or CPAP, a relatively new innovation developed in Australia in the early 1980′s. The technique offers relief to the user by delivering a stream of air from a pump into a comfortably fitting nose mask via a length of flexible tubing. Air pressure introduced through the nose has been described as an airway “splint”, preventing collapse by providing support in the form of positive pressure. CPAP does have some drawbacks. There are patients who never adapt to the sensation of air pressure applied through the nose mask and others who experience nasal irritation or excessive drying of the upper airway. CPAP has nevertheless proven to be extremely successful in the treatment of OSA, eliminating snoring and many of its debilitating symptoms.
When CPAP is not tolerated, or if circumstances make it impossible for the patient to use it effectively on a regular basis (e.g. the very young or mentally handicapped patients), then an operation called a tracheostomy would have to be considered. It involves the surgical formation of a hole into the windpipe (trachea), a procedure which had to be relied upon for urgent relief of airway obstruction before the advent of CPAP. The decision to have a tracheostomy is not made without due consideration of potential problems. It is not well tolerated by many patients because of the social and psychological adjustments that have to be made, particularly as normal speech is impaired.
Some of the more apparent symptoms which may be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. Their incidence and severity will depend on the period of time over which snoring and airway obstructions have occurred.
*16/130/5*

Septilin

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: EXERCISE IN CHILDREN
‘Why can’t we go in the car, Daddy?’ If I hear this phrase from my children once more I shall scream! Our local supermarket is no more than half a mile away but always there is this inbuilt resistance to a simple ten minute walk. The immune system, like the rest of our body, thrives on exercise but scientific development seems determined to make our lifestyles become increasingly more sedentary. The motor car is the prime example but everywhere there are labour-saving devices. In shops there are lifts and escalators instead of stairs, airports have long walkways and at home there are electric carving knives and even power-driven toothbrushes!
If children are taught bad habits early in life they tend to persist into adulthood. In asthma there is no doubt that some kinds of exercise can bring on an attack but with the correct management this should not create any problem. There is also increasing evidence that the more exercise the child does take the less chance there is of wheezing developing. In other words the fitter the child the less asthma he or she will suffer. I am sure this is because of the increased efficiency of the immune system
I asked Julie and her parents how much exercise she was taking, and it turned out to be very little. She had only just started school, so her father always took her in the car as it was on his route to work and a friend’s mother gave her a lift home.
I asked her about games at school: ‘Well, we do have P.E. once a week in the school hall but we don’t really do very much and I don’t start netball until next year,’ Julie replied.
This is quite typical of many primary schools these days and arises partly from lack of interest from the teachers but mainly from insufficient government funding for facilities and sports equipment. I also enquired about swimming but unfortunately Julie had been too late to enroll for lessons so only went occasionally. The main responsibility for her sedentary lifestyle, however, really lay with her parents who did not encourage her at all. In addition to not walking to school they never went into the country at weekends or took her to the local leisure centre themselves.
Simon also very rarely walked and although there was football and cross-country at school he found both of these tended to make him wheeze so he rarely put much effort into them. The end result of this lack of exercise is an unhealthy immune system and therefore little resistance to illness, including asthma.
Children love ‘doing’ things. They love exercising themselves as long as it is presented in an attractive form. While walking to the local shop may not hold much instant appeal I have found that my own children love walking up mountains! All kids love swimming and it only requires a little effort to take them to the local pool once a week and the benefit to their body defenses will be enormous.
Walking and swimming are the most beneficial forms of exercise and it is wise to start with them if your own child does not do anything else. Then, with the immune system strong it is easy to move on to sports like football, cross-country and cycling which put much more strain on the airways.
*20/211/5*

Prograf (Tacrolimus)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Prograf(Tacrolimus)
MAN IN THE MAKING: THE CONTROVERSY DARWIN STARTED
Up to the point to which the story has been so far told, with the placenta beginning to develop and the cells of the embryo multiplying and forming into layers, there has been little to distinguish the growth of a human being from that of other animals. Superficially the cells seem all alike, but minute as they are, their internal structure has a good deal of complication. The material of which the cell is composed is called protoplasm, and embryologists have a rather elaborate description of its arrangement. All that it is necessary to tell you about is a part of it called chromatin. This forms in a ribbon-like shape and breaks up into small pieces called chromosomes. The number of these chromosomes varies with different kinds of animals. Man has a lot.
The chromosomes are the containers of all the characteristics which the individual has inherited. When the sperm unites with the ovum, there ensues a mingling (if that is the correct word) of the chromosomes of both parents. Hence the resulting child inherits characteristics from both sides of the family tree, although usually it cannot be predicted which will predominate.
From now on the mysterious influences contained in the little strips of chromatin cause the embryo to rehearse in a few short months the infinite changes which have taken place in the eons since its ancestors were minute specks of matter floating about in the slightly salty Cambrian Sea. Until comparatively modern times it would have been ridiculous to hint to the general public this story of how the development of the race is epitomized in what goes on in a woman’s womb during pregnancy. But Charles Darwin, a century ago, published The Origin of Species and precipitated great discussions of these biological problems.
Naturally the details are most vaguely grasped except by specially trained scientists, but few of you have failed to learn that the human body starts as a single egg; is then a formless collection of cells; later has gills suggesting that like a fish it is intended for swimming; becomes something like a reptile; soon cannot be easily distinguished from any small quadruped; then grows hair and suggests an ape, and is finally born as a baby which we are proud to admit is a human, although it is still a far cry from a well-developed man or woman. In fact one fond mother admitted that her curled-up infant suggested a cutworm.
There are still people who are outraged by all this and protest that they are not “descended from a monkey.” Others of us who, on a spring morning, see a small shoot of green, indistinguishable from a weed, and a few days later find it transformed into a gorgeous tulip, feel that to be truly miraculous. With the same spirit we are awed by the thought that man, starting from the lowest beginning, may soon arise to something slightly lower than an angel.
It is interesting to know that a little tail appears at one period of gestation but it does not amount to much. We are proud to assert that there is no good evidence that we had a monkey in our family line. The embryo is for a time covered with hair; probably this is what led to the statement that man is descended from an ape. But then an ape is more respectable than a monkey.
Occasionally some of these primitive conditions persist after birth. I have never seen a tail on a human but I have seen many remains of what correspond to gills in a neck. Only last year a young girl was brought to me with a minute opening in the side of her neck where occasionally a drop of moisture would appear. When we operated we found a thin walled tube running among blood vessels and other structures to the tonsil, where we cut it off and removed it. This was a remnant of one of the gill clefts. Much more common is a similar condition, which starts at the skin by the thyroid gland in the front of the neck and runs right to the base of the tongue. This is still another gill cleft. We are warned, however, not to draw the conclusion that somewhere in the past our ancestors were fishes, somewhat similar to what we now see. We may only presume that there was some relationship between our grandparents many billions of generations back and the fish’s progenitors of the same period.
*4/276/5*

Achromycin, Sumycin (Tetracycline)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Achromycin,Sumycin(Tetracycline)
Other names: Panmycin
ASTHMA IN VERY YOUNG
Wheezing attacks can occur in babies but this is usually harmless as attacks are only mild. However, asthma may develop from the age of 12 months onwards and at this age it can present a management problem, as babies cannot manage the inhaler. The main reason for this is they are unable to co-ordinate the breath in with pressing the bottom of the inhaler to release the spray. Not only that, but this spray comes out with such force that most of it hits the back of the throat and very little goes into the lungs.
Yvette was 14 months old and had suffered three wheezing episodes in two months and her parents were naturally very worried about any further attacks. As the inhalers cause such problems at this age it may be necessary to resort to medicine by mouth. The preparation with the least side-effects is Alupent which, if given in the dose of one teaspoon three times daily, will keep the airways open. The problem is that, as it affects the rest of the body as well as the lungs, the dose has to be kept at a low level. Yvette’s mother was not keen on the idea of continuous medicine and asked if there was any other way of preventing the wheezing. The method of treatment I find most beneficial is to use a device called a volumatic or nebuhaler. This is basically a large plastic container which fits on to an ordinary inhaler. Three puffs of the medication can then be squeezed into this container and the baby or young child can inhale it without having to worry about coordinating the breathing. If the wheezing is still not fully controlled then the medication can be inhaled using a special machine called a nebulizer. This is an electrical device which turns the drug into a vapor which is then breathed in slowly over a period of ten minutes. The vapor is inhaled via a mask which can be held close to a baby’s mouth. In older children it is usually only necessary to use this machine during an actual attack. Yvette settled very well with the use of a nebuhaler and managed with this until she was old enough to use the smaller inhaler. The only disadvantage of the nebuhaler is that it is bulky and cannot be carried around in a pocket or handbag.
*15/211/5*

Trecator-SC (Ethionamide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Trecator-SC(Ethionamide)
THE FAMILIES OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
There are two families of essential fatty acids. One is the linoleic acid family, and the other is the alpha-linolenic acid family.
Linoleic acid is found in dairy products, organ meats such as liver, human milk, and notably in vegetable seed oils such as sunflower, safflower, and corn.
Alpha-linolenic acid is found in foods such as green vegetables, soya, and linseeds. Fish, fish oils and shellfish contain the metabolites of alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.
Both these families of essential fatty acids are vital for good health.
Evening primrose oil contains EFAs belonging to the linoleic acid family.
The problem is that the essential fatty acids in the food you are eating may not be getting through to the places they’re needed most.
There is no shortage of linoleic acid in foodstuffs. In modern diets, milk products and vegetable seed oils together with foods derived from them are probably the most important sources. In Europe, the average adult intake is around 7-15g a day. In North America, it is around 10-25g a day.
*3/60/5*

Omnicef (Cefdinir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Omnicef(Cefdinir)
BACK PAIN AND REMEDIES FOR ITS TREATMENT
Of the two thousand or more conditions known to cause bad back pain, by far the most common incapacitating problems are the disruption and protrusion of an inter vertebral disc. Disruption or “scrambling” of the centre of an inter vertebral disc usually occurs gradually and often presents with increasing and long lasting pain after heavy lifting or bending forward. Left to itself without aggravation this pain will settle after a week or two. It recurs if the victim chooses to bend forward or heavy lift again.
Pain, pins and needles and numbness radiating down one or both legs is a sign that the soft core of an inter vertebral disc is bulging or has protruded rearwards compressing either a nerve root or the spinal cord. Both disc disruption and protrusion will resolve if left to themselves. There is a process of natural healing that takes place over a period of years. This is no consolation to the sufferer of back pain who accepts the offer of a Laminectomy or a Spinal Fusion as a means of immediate relief.
Men or women in white collar occupations are much more likely to be patient with a bad back than men or women who engage in daily physical labour. The availability of CAT scans and MRI imaging vastly improves the detection of inter vertebral disc disorders.
Home Remedies
There are two big “nevers” in the management of low back pain. Firstly, never lift anything heavier than seven pounds. Secondly, never bend forward. Remember that sitting down is bending forward so avoid sitting without adequate lumbar support. Stools and chairs with seats at less than 90 degrees to the horizontal take significant compressive forces away from the lower back. Where finances permit, the owner of a bad back should drive a car with good seating, power steering and an automatic gearbox. Nothing is much better than twenty laps of an Olympic pool when it comes to relieving the acute or chronic pain of lumbar disc disorders.
*14/131/5*

Amoxil (Amoxycillin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Amoxil(Amoxycillin)
Other names: Ampicillin, Omnipen-N, Polycillin-N, Principen, Amoxicillin
CHILDHOOD ASTHMA: PREVENTION OF ASTHMA ATTACKS
‘Can’t you stop me having these attacks, Daddy?’ pleaded my little daughter Tina on one occasion when she was particularly breathless and was unable to go to school. It would have to be the one time when her class was going on an outing which Tina had been looking forward to for several weeks. Not only that but my wife had commented about ten days previously that the wheezing episodes seemed to be coming much more frequently and this was the fourth day in a month that Tina would miss a day at school. Certainly her actual attacks were being effectively treated but the methods we were using to prevent them were obviously totally inadequate.
It is most distressing to see your own child fighting for breath so it is vital to use all possible means to avert this happening, provided this does not interfere with the quality of life. All asthmatics should be able to lead a normal life and take part in all the usual activities without fear of becoming wheezy.
Prevention can be divided into four basic principles:
1. Ensure the natural body defenses or immune system is in tip-top condition.
2. Where possible, remove any obvious causes of the asthma attacks.
3. Regularly use any medication that has been prescribed.
4. Investigate the alternative methods of control, e.g. relaxation techniques, breathing exercises, homoeopathy, acupuncture and hypnosis.
*12/211/5*

Flagyl (Metronidazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Flagyl(Metronidazole)
ENERGY AND STRESS TEST
Not everyone needs a stress test before embarking on an exercise regimen, but if you’re over forty years of age, or have a family history of heart disease, a full physical exam that includes a stress test is recommended.
Stress tests are not infallible!
Basically, a stress test is used to determine the heart’s ability to send oxygen-containing blood to muscles as they are pushed to work harder. The test involves an ECG (electrocardiogram) and a monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate, first when you’re resting and then after performing a certain amount of exercise. (This is usually walking up and down a two-step stool or on a treadmill; sometimes riding a stationary bicycle.)
These tests are not infallible, though they can usually tell if you’re a high risk for cardiovascular problems, which is essential for anyone considering strenuous sports and workouts to be aware of.
Equally important is recognizing that even if you do pass a stress test, it’s unwise to rush headlong into any strenuous activity without having previously conditioned for it.
*11/137/5*

Tegopen (Cloxacillin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
CHEST INFECTION AS ONE OF THE CAUSES OF ACUTE CONFUSION

Chest infections occur more commonly in the winter, especially if the lungs are already diseased. Smoking is the main cause of lung damage and causes the conditions of chronic bronchitis and emphysema (breathing difficulties with shortness of breath, cough and phlegm) as well as lung cancer. People with these conditions get much worse when a chest infection occurs, so smoking should be stopped at any age no matter how few cigarettes are being smoked. An elderly person’s lungs may have been affected by their occupation, e.g. coal mining, or exposure to asbestos or other forms of dust. Lungs may be weakened by other chronic diseases, e.g. asthma, operations, complications of old tuberculosis (ТВ) infections, or after gassing in the First World War. Even fairly healthy lungs can become infected. In particular, influenza epidemics are very dangerous for the elderly, especially if there is already a chest problem.
Chest infections can be difficult to diagnose early. It becomes easier if the confusion is accompanied by a cough, especially a fruity one, and the person can cough up phlegm. Phlegm is often coughed up normally, especially in smokers, but it is then normally white in colour. In a chest infection it becomes green or yellow and may rarely contain some blood. The infection may be accompanied by some chest pains; when these occur on breathing deeply it is suggestive of pleurisy (an inflammation of the lining of the lungs and inner chest wall). The earliest sign that a chest infection is present is often breathlessness. This may not be complained of, but carers may notice that at the beginning of the illness the person sitting at rest is breathing quite fast and shallowly.
Chest infections are either caused by bacteria or viruses. In bacterial infections antibiotics are needed to kill the bugs. Smoking should be stopped. Sometimes the infection is accompanied by wheezing and then other drugs (often in an inhaler or vapour form) are given. Coughing helps bring up the phlegm and is therefore a good thing. However, it can sometimes become exhausting and painful and needs to be lessened. People with already damaged lungs may need the help of home oxygen during a new infection, but this is always supervised at the start by a doctor. Some areas of the country have physiotherapists (part of whose job is to help clear congested lungs by tapping the chest and draining the secretions by posture) who visit people at home.
Influenza is caused by a virus. Unlike bacteria, viruses are not killed by antibiotics, so antibiotics should not be prescribed, except where complications such as added bacterial pneumonia occur. Instead, treatment is supportive and along the lines stated above. It is possible to offer some protection against influenza by having vaccination injections from the GP, and these are especially recommended in the very frail and in those people with lung damage. As with urine infections, if the condition is very bad then admission to hospital is necessary.
*3/128/5*

Furoxone (Furazolidone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Furoxone(Furazolidone)
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL AND ATOPIC CONDITIONS (ASTHMA, HAY FEVER, ALLERGIES AND OTHERS)
On the face of it, eczema, asthma, hay fever and allergies all sound like very different conditions. But in fact they have a lot in common – they are all to do with an abnormal body defense system. Doctors call this condition ‘atopy’.
In fact atopy – or a generalized allergic response – can show itself as any or all of a variety of conditions. As many as one in five of the population suffers from some sort of atopy (though this term is virtually unknown by the layman). Atopy is common in patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, ear problems, nasal polyps, and some obstetric problems.
Atopic eczema is closely linked with other atopic conditions like asthma and hay fever, and it is common to find other members of the family suffering from these things. In some ways, atopic eczema behaves like a type of asthma where the patient is a little short-winded virtually all the time and occasionally has real difficulty in breathing. In one person the atopy shows up as eczema, but in another person it might take the form of, say, asthma.
There are several things in common between eczema, asthma, allergies and other atopic conditions:
1. Faulty immune response. It has been known for a long time that people with eczema, asthma and allergies have something wrong with their immune system. There is some speculation that the abnormalities of the immune system in atopic disease are partly secondary consequences of a disordered fatty acid metabolism. If there is a fatty acid abnormality, various parts of the immune system or things which regulate the immune system are badly affected, particularly PGE1 and the T-lymphocytes. The abnormal fatty acid composition found in people with atopic eczema has similarities with cases of respiratory allergy.
2. Faulty enzyme function. Atopic people may have a defect in the delta-6-desaturase enzyme, which is needed to convert linoleic acid to GLA. The fact that evening primrose oil works in atopic eczema means that the enzyme block can be bypassed, which would indicate that a defective enzyme is the guilty party. This may also be the case with other atopic conditions.
The blocking agents are inhibitors of the delta-6-desaturase enzyme. So people with atopic conditions must be more careful about the things which cause disruption to an already defective enzyme system. The main ones are:
• Trans fatty acids
• Too much saturated fat
• Simple sugars
• Alcohol
• Catecholamines – hormones released by adrenal glands during stress
Evening primrose oil does nothing to correct the actual defective enzyme. But, by starting at step 2 in the conversion process of linoleic acid, it gives the body enough essential fatty acids for everything to be able to work properly.
So evening primrose oil helps correct the faulty immune system in people with atopic conditions. This is because it converts to PGE1, which stimulates the T-lymphocytes, which play a key role in the immune system. T-suppressor lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell which seem to keep other parts of the immune system under control and which make sure that the immune system first and foremost attacks foreign invaders, like bacteria and viruses, and not the body’s own tissues.
It seems that the T-lymphocytes, especially T-suppressor cells, are faulty in people with atopic conditions. When T-suppressor cells are defective, auto-immune damage often happens.
*18/60/5*

Myambutol (Ethambutol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Myambutol(Ethambutol)
WHAT MAKES NORMAL 20/20 VISION: EYE’S FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
The ratio of 20 to 20 refers to the difference between the eye being measured and a theoretical normal-seeing eye. For example, if you are told by your eye doctor that you have 20/40 vision in the left eye, that eye has to be as close as 20 feet to see what a normal eye can see at 40 feet. It has about one half normal vision.
On the other hand, if your right eye is 20/15, that means it can see at 20 feet what a normal eye sees when placed within 15 feet of an object. It has vision approximately 25 percent better than normal. When the anatomy of the eye is functioning physiologically correctly, you are able to see with 20/20 vision.
The central area in the eye furnishing the best sight is the macula, which is some l/20th of an inch in diameter. The macula contains most of the 6.25 million cones that join together with 125 million rods which make up the approximately 130,000,000 light-sensitive cells in the retina. Retinal cones are specialized visual cells responsible for sharpness of vision and color vision. Retinal rods respond to light, dark, movements, shapes, but not to colors.
The very tightest concentration of cones (147,000 per square millimeter [mm]) is in the fovea, a tiny depression in the center of the macula. When you look at something, you turn your eyes so that the light rays are focused precisely on the fovea. There is very little overlying tissue to block the light rays.
The retina is the lining at the back of the eye where the image is formed. It is composed of those specialized light-sensitive cells that we’ve mentioned, rods and cones, plus various typical brain-type cells, and a network of arteries and veins. Moreover, the retina is comprised of a formidable complex system of interconnected nerve cells. Its rods share a common line to the brain, while its cones each have an almost direct nerve line to the brain. The more numerous the rods are distributed throughout the retina, the number getting fewer at the extreme edges.
Along with the retina, crammed into the eyeball, which is a sphere about an inch long, are other specialized parts. The cornea is a transparent tissue covering the front of the eye much as a watch crystal covers a watch, except that it is living tissue. The cornea is clear as crystal and situated in front of the iris and pupil.
The iris is a thin circular curtain which is the colored part of the eye. A person’s eye color depends on the amount of pigment in the iris; deep brown eyes have the most pigment and light blue have the least.
The pupil is a hole in the center of the iris. It is black because the inside of the eye is dark. The pupil’s size varies with the amount of light entering, for it can get smaller with increased light and larger with lessened light.
The tough, but delicate and sensitive outer coat of the eye actually is composed of two parts. As mentioned, the cornea is one, and the sclera is the other. The sclera is opaque (impervious to light) and protects the rest of the eye: it’s referred to as the “white of the eye.”
*2/127/5*

E-mycin (Erythromycin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###E-mycin(Erythromycin)
Other names: Eryc, Ilosone, P.c.e.
NEW TECHNIQUES FOR PEOPLE WITH SPINAL AND BRAIN INJURIES
You drift awake. Lights fill your eyes. It’s hard to see the faces peering down at you. You can’t remember exactly what happened a few minutes ago – or was it hours ago? You cannot lift your hands. Your legs don’t respond either. You are totally paralyzed. Terror grips your mind.
Slowly, you realize this is no nightmare. This is real. Then they tell you: Two weeks ago . . . auto accident . . . barely made it…neck is broken…can’t tell yet whether you can walk.
And, as the weeks go by, the full reality hits: You will never walk again; never use your arms, hands, or fingers. You can’t control your bladder or your bowel.
How would you react? Most people say they would not want to live.
In the past, the victims of injury to the brain or spinal cord lived but briefly. Consigned to back rooms, they soon fell prey to deadly infections, kidney failure, or pneumonia. Today, new medical techniques keep them alive and productive. Thousands live busy, even happy lives.
Leslie Brumagin of Emmaus, Pennsylvania, was paralyzed from the waist down in an automobile accident in 1983. She couldn’t think or remember. “With treatment, Leslie attended college, drives a car, skis, goes gliding, and even plays tennis from her wheelchair.
“I didn’t know much about life before the accident,” she says. “I just wanted to be popular. Now I am just beginning to live.”
Combined, spinal cord injury and brain trauma inflict a stupendous burden on our medical and social systems. According to the National Head Injury Foundation, auto accidents, falls, and flying objects send 500,000 Americans to the hospital each year with injured heads and wounded brains. One in 10 of them dies, and 50,000 more are permanently disabled. More than a million head-injured Americans are struggling with brains that don’t work properly.
The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research estimates that 14,000 Americans suffer spinal cord injuries each year. Forty percent die, most of them almost immediately. But about 8,000 to 10,000 are left paralyzed and in need of care. In this country alone, 300,000 paraplegics and quadriplegics are trying to forge new lives for themselves in wheelchairs.
Estimates of the bill for all this – mostly paid in tax dollars – have been placed as high as $4 billion a year in health care costs and lost productivity.
At the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems in Baltimore, the shock trauma center springs into action on spine or brain injuries four or more times a day.
Dr. Fred Geisler, clinical director of neurotrauma at the institute, says 95 percent of patients treated there survive. He adds, “So far, doctors have done a good job of keeping patients alive, but we haven’t been able to help in the long term.”
Beyond the emergency phase, medical and psychological advances help patients. The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research lists 13 model hospitals nationally where the spine-injured get top care. Craig Hospital in Denver is one.
Leslie Brumagin went to Craig Hospital in 1983. “I was convinced that I would walk again,” she says. “It took me a while to get it through my head that, actually, I would not get miraculously better.”
Says Dr. Dan Larnmertse, medical director at Craig: “The resiliency of the human spirit is incredible. People dig down and come up with inner strength to get through. But some never get over their anger.”
In 3 to 4 months, the staff members squeeze every bit of function out of whichever nerves and muscles still work. They teach paraplegics how to get in and out of bed, on and off the toilet, how to dress and bathe. They constantly fight infection, kidney shutdown, and pneumonia. Many quadriplegics cannot breathe without mechanical respirators.
*10/266/5*

Macrobid (Nitrofurantoin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Macrobid(Nitrofurantoin)
Other names: Furadantin, Macrodantin
BARIUM ENEMA
Medical politics and a demarcation dispute lurk beneath the innocent appearing surface of the Barium Sulfate Enema. The use of flexible fibre optic telescopes by gastroenterologists provides a better view of the lower digestive tract than does the Barium Enema.
If Barium studies are still widely requested by general practitioners it is because competition for the Medicare dollar is fierce. Today’s G.P.s want patients in their own surgeries; and not in the waiting rooms of specialist colleagues. Barium studies bring patients back with a packet of X- Rays and a radiologist’s report. Exit the gastroenterologist. The G.P. rules O.K.
Fortunately over the years the volume of barium swallowed by mouth or introduced in to the back passage as an enema by radiologists has been reduced. Furthermore the difference between Barium studies and endoscopy in terms of reliability is not great. In any event most people prefer Barium studies to the traumatic and uncomfortable insertion of an endoscope.
Home Remedies
Before a Barium Enema the patient undergoes a ruthless purge. It is important for the bowel to be clear of faeces for the test to be accurate. That hurdle and the procedure overcome, many patients complain about the Barium in their bowels “setting like concrete”. At this point a less gentle laxative such as coloxyl with senna for a few nights is in order. This combination will clear the bowel of any remaining Barium.
*17/131/5*

Symmetrel (Amantadine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Symmetrel(Amantadine)
CHRONIC CONFUSION: HYPOTHYROIDISM
The thyroid gland in the neck produces the hormone thyroxin. It is the thermostat of the body and one of its regulators. It sets the level at which all the body processes run. The gland commonly fails in old age, but it tends to do so slowly so that the effects only come on gradually. As the thyroxin level falls the body slows down. The person becomes tired and slow, but as it all happens over a long period of time many people put it down to old age. Gradually the symptoms worsen. People tend to put on weight, especially around the face which gets very puffy. Everything slows up including the bowels so that constipation is a problem. Even the pulse slows down as the body adjusts to a lower level of functioning. The person commonly complains about the cold and can never get warm, and hair loss can occur from both the head and outer third of the eyebrows. If stressed (by cold weather) the sufferer can lapse into a coma. Because all of this happens over many months, if not years, it can be very difficult for carers to notice the changes. Even the family doctor, if he/she sees the person regularly, may miss it. It is the classic condition of the doctor’s mother! I often see people on trains or at functions who I am certain are hypothyroid and I wonder if anyone else knows. As the disease progresses mental faculties slow down with the rest of the body so that confusion in the latter stages is common.
In its late stage the condition is readily diagnosable – the facial appearance, husky gruff voice, slow pulse and slowed reflexes – let alone the symptoms of constipation, feeling the cold, etc. A blood test confirms the diagnosis and treatment is carried out by replacing the thyroxin in a tablet form. This has to be done extremely slowly at the beginning because the body has got used to a much slower pace. Gradually the dose is increased and everything returns completely to normal.
Because many of the symptoms and signs of the condition are rather non-specific (constipation and chronic confusion occur commonly together), the blood test to check the level of thyroxin and more importantly TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone – a substance that goes up in the blood stream as the thyroxin level falls) should be given to everyone with a chronic confusional state.
The thyroid replacement medication usually has to be taken for life. Hypothyroidism is especially common after the thyroid gland has been removed for over-activity when the person was younger.
A thyroidectomy scar in a confused old person should always lead one to consider the diagnosis of hypothyroidism.
*16/128/5*

Floxin (Ofloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Floxin(Ofloxacin)
FACTORS WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO SNORING: THE SHAPE OF THE UPPER AIRWAY, OBESITY
In fact, most people’s airways remain open during sleep and they experience neither the audible evidence of partial collapse nor a disastrous total collapse. So what makes snorers different?
The shape of the upper airway
In many instances the cause of snoring is plainly visible on a simple examination of the throat. Looking through the mouth into the oropharynx, one is often confronted with a pendulous and swollen soft palate and uvula which quite plainly has the effect of narrowing the entrance to the upper airway. Inflammation or reddening of this tissue is further evidence of upper airway trauma caused by snoring. Some patients present with a good history of snoring but with no remarkable physical features to account for the symptoms, and it is these patients who impress on us the fact that snoring can be brought about by very subtle changes in the shape of the upper airway.
Using a technique known as acoustic reflection (in principle, not unlike a sonar) several studies have demonstrated that the cross sectional area of the pharynx in heavy snorers is less than that of non snorers.5 In other words snorers tend to have a narrower pharynx in the awake state even before other factors come into play such as the loss of muscle tone during sleep. Not surprisingly, the soft tissue around the narrowed airway vibrates under the added strain of each inspiratory manoeuvre. Careful analysis of the size and position of facial bones, particularly the jaw, has shown that heavy snorers often have slight changes in the alignment of these structures which again favours collapse of the upper airway.
Although most snorers will have a narrow pharynx or some degree of mal-alignment of the jaw there are sometimes more conspicuous findings which tip the scales dramatically in favour of the repetitive airway obstruction which is often associated with heavy snoring. Any condition, and there are many, which effectively restricts the flow of air through the upper airway by narrowing the pharynx will promote snoring.
Obesity
Obesity certainly contributes to the incidence and severity of snoring. The relationship between excessive weight and sleep disorders is under active investigation and there is evidence to suggest that fat deposits in the tissue surrounding the pharynx play a role. Weight loss, even for the mildly overweight, has been shown to be effective in reducing the severity of snoring.
*5/130/5*

Canasa (Mesalamine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Canasa(Mesalamine)
Other names: Asacol, Pentasa, Asacol
AUSTRALIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (AMA)
The Australian Medical Association is a political pressure group dominated by medical specialists. Occasionally the AMA takes up an issue from the point of view of patients. The anti-smoking campaign is a case in point. But this case is an exception rather than the rule. Primarily, the AMA concerns itself with the market place interests of private specialists. More recently – in the face of imminent nationalization – the AMA has devoted considerable energy to the struggle between general practitioners and the Federal Labor Government. Sometimes described as the “Painters and Doctors Association”, the AMA would have a better public profile if it were honest or its industrial wing were separated from those sub divisions that conduct the most laudable of altruistic activities.
AMA Recommended Fee, Medical Specialists, Medicare Rebate, Medicare Schedule Fee.
Home Remedies
Place a few dollars each week in a biscuit tin for medical emergencies. The provision of gap insurance by Medicare or alternative private insurance companies is forbidden by government decree.
*7/131/5*

Rifater (Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
Other names: Rifampicin
TAKING NSAIDs NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS): CAUTIONARY NOTES AND MORE
Cautionary notes
Before starting NSAID therapy discuss the following with your physician:
• A history of allergy to aspirin or other anti-inflammatory medication. Symptoms of allergy include rash, hives, wheezing, and swollen lips or eyelids.
• Previous history of asthma, nasal polyps, stomach ulcer, bleeding problems, colitis, high blood pressure, and kidney or liver problems.
• Any medications you are taking, particularly medications for blood thinning, diabetes, gout, high blood pressure, pain, or seizures.
While taking NSAIDs:
• Contact your physician promptly if you notice dark or tar-colored bowel movements, persistent indigestion or nausea, stomach pain that is relieved by eating.
• Never take more than one NSAID at a time. If your doctor prescribes a new NSAID, he or she will almost certainly take you off the other; if he or she fails to discuss this with you, you should ask about it. Do not take over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen and aspirin while you are taking an NSAID. If your physician approves, acetaminophen (Tylenol) may be taken while you are taking an NSAID.
• Unless you are instructed otherwise, you should take the NSAID at mealtime to reduce indigestion and stomach irritation.
• Inform your dentist, surgeon, and anyone else performing health care procedures that you are taking an NSAID.
• Wait two to four weeks before judging the effectiveness of the NSAID.
• Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking because these practices increase your risk of developing an ulcer.
• Your doctor may periodically request blood tests for blood cell counts, kidney and liver tests, and tests for electrolyte (sodium and potassium) levels, as well as examine your stool for blood.
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Not all NSAIDs have been studied adequately as to their effects on pregnancy, but it is generally recommended that they be discontinued during pregnancy. Most NSAIDs are excreted to some degree in the breast milk, and hence their use is usually discouraged during nursing. The manufacturer’s package insert can be reviewed by you and your physician for information about the use of a specific NSAID during pregnancy and nursing. Discuss all medications with your obstetrician and your pediatrician.
*3/209/5*

Ceclor (Cefaclor)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Ceclor(Cefaclor)
HEALTHY EYES: DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
Portions of the eye are subject to illness with the retina being chief among them. Some conditions like detached retina, in which the retina comes loose from the choroid against which it normally rests, can be repaired if detected in time. Others, like the retinal damage – diabetic retinopathy – that is often seen in diabetes or in high blood pressure, may be extremely difficult to correct.
A major complication of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy is the fastest growing cause of blindness today. There are over ten million diabetics in the United States. Diabetes is the sixth most frequent cause of death among Americans. Of those who have been the victims of diabetes for eleven years or more, two-thirds will experience diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, it is present in more than 90 percent of those who have had diabetes for fifteen to twenty years. Diabetic retinopathy is reaching for equivalency with cataracts as the chief cause of blindness in this country.
“Retinopathy” simply means pathology or disease of the retina and roughly parallels the duration of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is a catchall term used to describe any of the various stages of retinal pathology caused by diabetes, including hemorrhages, thrombi, aneurysms, and scarring of the retinal tissue. Diabetes damages the circulation by causing degeneration of the lining of walls of the blood vessels–first the microscopic capillaries, then the minute arteries and veins. Later, these little vessels become so weakened that they occur most typically in the retina.
The retinal blood vessel changes and hemorrhages may result in new, abnormal blood vessels forming on the retina and growing into the clear, gel-like vitreous where they often hemorrhage. While this blood may eventually clear, the blood, blood clots, and blood vessels in the vitreous humor may cloud and affect sight. Massive retina detachment may also take place. Treatment may consist of vitrectomy, in which the blood-filled vitreous is removed and replaced. Photocoagulation with lasers or xenon arc light beams is proving successful. Although an eye surgeon will be able to say whether or not the eye problem is the result of advanced or badly controlled diabetes, treatment must be aimed at the whole condition, not just at the retina.
*20/127/5*