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Archive for the ‘Anti-Infectives’ Category

Vermox (Mebendeazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Vermox(Mebendeazole)
RIBOFLAVIN AS A WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN
Functions
Riboflavin is a constituent of a group of enzymes called flavoproteins. As with thiamin, these enzymes are necessary in the breakdown of glucose to form energy. It is important to remember that the function of riboflavin in the release of energy is different from the function of the thiamin-containing enzymes. In other words, one vitamin cannot replace another; they might be considered as part of a team.
Riboflavin is essential for a healthy skin and for good vision in bright light. If the individual ingests more riboflavin than his body needs, the urinary excretion will increase; if the intake is inadequate, the body maintains its supply very carefully and the urinary excretion will practically stop.
Meeting daily needs
The requirement for riboflavin is related to the calorie and protein intake. The recommended allowance for the reference woman is 1.2 mg and for the reference man is 1.6 mg. The allowances are somewhat higher in proportion to body size for growing children and during pregnancy and lactation.
About half of the intake of riboflavin daily is furnished by milk alone. Cheese is a good source, although some of the vitamin has been lost in the whey. Important but smaller contributions are made by meat, especially organ meats, dark green leafy vegetables, and enriched cereal foods.
Riboflavin is stable to heat, acid, and oxidation. There is less loss in cooking than with thiamin or ascorbic acid. When exposed to light riboflavin is rapidly destroyed; thus, exposing milk in clear-glass bottles to sunlight for a few hours leads to considerable loss.
Clinical problems
Riboflavin deficiency leads to cheilosis, a cracking of the skin at the corners of the lips and scaliness of the skin around the ears and nose. There may be redness and burning as well as itching of the eyes, and extreme sensitivity to strong light.
*72/234/5*

Augmentin (Amoxycillin, Clavulanic Acid)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Augmentin(Amoxycillin,ClavulanicAcid)
Other names: Co-amoxiclav
LASER FOR TREATMENT OF TUMORS, EAR, THROAT AND PROSTATE
Tumors
Using lasers, surgeons have, with great precision, cut through tumors blocking a vital organ – not curing the patient but greatly relieving pain. Some cures actually have resulted from the removal of large benign growths. In patients too weak to endure major surgery, the laser can provide relief by burning away tumors that block the channels that take in air and liquids.
Dr. Mark Shikowitz works in the Otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat) Department at Long Island Jewish Medical Center in New Hyde Park, New York. One of his many research projects includes testing a new therapy for treating laryngeal papillomas – benign tumors of the larynx, which cause choking. They are generated by the human papilloma virus. Repeated treatments often are needed; the polyps tend to recur, Dr. Shikowitz says. First, he explains, he gives the patient an intravenous dose of a special photosensitive dye. Within 48 to 72 hours, the normal cells release the dye. But the tumor cells retain it and die when a laser is shined on them. The normal cells live.
Ear Surgery
Dr. Shikowitz and others in this specialty are using lasers for treating hearing loss that results when otosclerosis paralyzes a small bone in the ear called the stapes. A laser can drill a hole to permit the implantation of an artificial stapes.
Throat Surgery
Lasers do well in removing tonsils and soft tissues in the throat that cause snoring.
Prostate Surgery
Yearly, 300,000 to 600,000 patients undergo surgery on the prostate gland. This gland often enlarges after a man reaches age 50, creating a need for frequent urination but allowing passage only of a weakened stream. Traditional surgery removes the blockage with a small cutting instrument introduced through the penis. With lasers, the obstruction is burned away.
*51/266/5*

Grisactin (Griseofulvin Fulvicin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Grisactin(GriseofulvinFulvicin)
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
The brain
What we might call this modern part of man’s brain is delicate and like the complicated, finely adjusted machines which he now makes, is easily put out of order. The popular conception is that the most important part of this up-to-date brain is the “gray matter” of the surface, forming the centers. A sharp-tongued lawyer of our town had an associate with a handsome shock of gray hair, but, in the opinion of our friend, little intelligence. The judgment passed was, “All his gray matter is on the outside of his skull.” Undoubtedly these centers are necessary for intelligence, but it is the myriad of white fibers, forming an almost infinite number of intercommunications, like – to use a weak simile – the wire of a big telephone exchange, which really allow involved thinking.
All this intricate mechanism is already laid down when the poor helpless human baby is born, but it is of little avail to him until he has been trained to use it. Why a child named Charles Darwin became so adept in its use while one of the nearby farm laborers made such slight progress is an unsolved mystery. Even an examination after death would throw no light on it.
As animals become more complex and what we call higher in the animal scale, the brain becomes relatively larger and more complex. The lowest type of function we call instinct, which is inherited full formed and cannot be changed. Human babies have a few instincts, the most prominent of which is the nursing reflex. Put anything into a baby’s mouth and he will start pumping in the same manner that produces milk from a breast. The comfort associated with this sucking may persist in a modified form throughout life.
The brain acquires habits, which have to be learned at first but by repetition become automatic. In fact, the brain practically relinquishes control over these, and if it asserts itself, the result is usually bad. You run rapidly downstairs without putting your mind upon it. If you should happen to think about where you are putting your feet, you would probably have to jump the remaining stairs to save your limbs.
The human brain, however, can cause variable, modifiable actions which are intelligent, and powers of this kind are what put us ahead of the brutes. Actions handled in this way are not so mechanically clever as those done by habit. The late Dr. Hugh Cabot told me that the Massachusetts General Hospital once brought an efficiency expert to the operating room to see if he could not eliminate waste motions. He soon gave up in despair. It was the surgeon’s intelligence which played the important part, and rarely did he feel at liberty to go blithely ahead like a sleight-of-hand man. In fact, Dr. Maurice Richardson, who was renowned for his surgical dexterity, said that almost any housewife in New England could sew more dexterously than he.
The spinal cord
Below the foramen magnum, in the bottom of the skull, the continuation of the central nervous system is called the spinal cord. It runs down in a bony canal inside the spinal column about as far as the small of the back. If the cord is sliced across at various levels, it will be found to vary a little in size and shape. At the neck and near the lower end it is enlarged somewhat where the nerves come off for the arms and legs. A cross-section shows a sort of H-shaped portion of gray matter inside. This consists of cells, and it is injury to these which causes the paralysis of poliomyelitis. The rest is white nerve fibers running down the cord.
*46/276/5*

Tinidazole

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
FUNGAL INFECTIONS
Humans are prey to a variety of fungal infections. Most infest the skin and bowels but occasionally parasitisation of the blood stream and vital organs occurs. Thrush, ringworm and athletes foot are but a few of the common human fungal infections. Dandruff is frequently seen in relation to a yeast called Pityrosporum Ovale. The fungi are nearly all at home in the soil, on animals and on other humans. From these reservoirs infection usually arises. Modern medicine provides effective treatment of superficial fungal infections in the form of Imidazole drugs such as Canesten, Daktarin, Monistat and Nizoral.
Home Remedies
Fungi belonging to the tinea family produce athletes’ foot and ringworm. Infection often involves skin breaks in the presence of heat and humidity. For these reasons the groin and between the toes are inherently predisposed to the overgrowth of fungi. Prevention of tinea in the groin calls for loose cotton underwear and baggy shorts. As far as athletes foot is concerned the wearing of sandals and thongs cools infected areas and allows them to stay dry. Over the counter antifungal remedies like Tinaderm, Whitfield’s Ointment and Vioform Cream are not as good as the Imidazoles; but still work. They cleanse the outer layers of skin exposing tinea to an unfriendly external environment.
*1/131/5*

Mentax (Butenafine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Mentax(Butenafine)
EYE CARE CONTROVERSIES: THE POLITICS OF THE EYEBALL
“Eyeball politics” is created by the struggle for potential patient attention among the three eye care professions. Confusion reigns, in particular for the patient, when he or she is forced to determine if eyeglasses and/or contacts should be purchased from the optician who designs, manufactures, and sells lenses and frames or from the optometrist who not only prescribes such lenses but also has them made by prescription and sells them at profit.
Additionally, the patient must further decide if the optometrist he sees regularly for eyeglass prescriptions is I detecting eye health problems. Ophthalmologists say only al medical doctor can do this. Optometrists say they, as O.D.’s, have the training to catch a health problem and refer the patient to an eye surgeon, saving the patient an] extra professional visit.
Judith Doctor, M.D., an ophthalmologist practicing in Westport, Connecticut and affiliated with Norwalk Hospital (in Norwalk, Connecticut) says that eye doctors are the sole professionals licensed to use drugs that dilate the pupils, making it easier to spot the early signs of disease “Only a medical doctor has the training to give a complete medical exam,” she added.
Robert Ross, O.D., practicing optometry in Westport, responded that most people who see an optometrist regularly will get the necessary exams to catch eye health problems. He said, “Ninety-six percent of the patients visiting eye professionals have vision, not medical problems but any possible trouble could be detected by a good optometrist.” As an example he referred to a machine in his office that does a sophisticated test for high pressure in the eye, the sign of glaucoma.
Around the country optometrists are lobbying in state legislatures for permission to use drugs that dilate the pupils. Such lobbying for the more medically-oriented effort has angered ophthalmologists, who declare that only those with an M.D. degree should be allowed to administer drugs to eye care patients. They argue that the dilating drugs could trigger a sudden glaucoma attack. Eye physicians are unable to tell when a stimulus might set off an unexpected increase in eye pressure, which may build to dangerous levels, according to Bernard Singer, M.D., chief of the section of ophthalmology at Norwalk Hospital.
If an acute glaucoma attack should strike, it is essential that the patient have a medical doctor on hand to treat the disease, Dr. Singer said. Along with the blinding pain from an acute attack, Dr. Singer stated, “An untreated, undiagnosed acute attack can result in total blindness within twenty-four to forty-eight hours.” He added that many such victims will need immediate surgery.
Dr. Ross countered with the statement that the fears of an acute glaucoma attack are overrated. “These kinds of attacks are rare; I don’t think a patient should fear getting one when the eye is dilated,” Dr. Ross said. He added that the patient could always go to a local hospital with little risk of permanent eye damage.
*27/127/5*

Videx (Didanosine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
NUTRITION BASICS FOR MEN: PREVENTING THE DRAIN – START THE DAY RIGHT, EAT EVERYTHING—IN MODERATION
Start the day right. In this hectic age of late nights and hour-long commutes, keeping regular mealtimes—or even having meals—can be a challenge. But if you’re only going to eat one real meal a day, make sure it’s breakfast. After eight or more hours in bed your body is running on empty and needs a fill-up. “Of all the time-honored adages regarding food, perhaps the wisest is: ‘Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper,’” says Joanne Curran-Celentano, R.D., PhD., associate professor of nutrition and food sciences at the University of New Hampshire in Durham.
Can’t stand the thought of scrambled eggs first thing in the morning? Then heat some of last night’s stew or boil up a plate of pasta. It isn’t against the law to eat “dinner” foods at dawn, and they’ll get your engine revved as well as traditional “breakfast” foods.
Eat everything—in moderation. Experts agree that as long as you don’t stuff yourself silly, there are no “bad” foods. “All food is health food in moderation,” says Victor Herbert, M.D., professor of medicine at the Mount Sinai Medical Center and Bronx Veterans Affairs Medical Center, both in New York City. “Any food is junk food in excess.”
*16/257/8*

Zerit (Stavudine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zerit(Stavudine)
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: ASCORBIC ACID
Functions
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is essential for building collagen, the connective tissue protein that “cements” the cells and tissues together. The effect of this material is to provide firm tissues of all kinds: strong blood vessels, teeth firmly held in their sockets, and bones firmly held together.
Ascorbic acid improves the absorption of iron from the intestines; it is needed to convert folacin to folinic acid; it is required for the formation of hormones such as thyroxine and adrenaline and probably the steroid hormones; it participates in the metabolism of amino acids; and it is essential in wound healing.
Body stores
With an adequate diet the body maintains a normal saturation of vitamin С in the tissues. The greatest concentration occurs in the adrenal gland and the eyes. With an adequate intake, the stores in the adult body range between 600 and 1500 mg. If an individual consumed no vitamin C, this store would be used up in 20 to 50 days, assuming that he needed 30 mg per day. During this time symptoms would begin to develop as described below.
The kidney helps to regulate tissue storage. When the tissues are depleted, very little ascorbic acid will be excreted. When the tissues are saturated, the excess intake will be excreted.
Recommended allowances
A minimum intake of 10 mg ascorbic acid daily will prevent scurvy, but higher intakes are recommended for optimum health. The recommended allowance for adults is 60 mg; of infants, 35 mg; and for children, 45 mg.
Food sources
Ascorbic acid is sometimes called the “fresh-food” vitamin. It occurs in the growing parts of the plant, but it is absent from the dormant seed. Only the vegetable-fruit group contributes to the vitamin С intake. Human milk from a healthy mother supplies sufficient amounts for the young infant. Pasteurized milk contains only traces.
Raw fresh fruits and vegetables all contain vitamin C, but some foods are more outstanding than others. Oranges, grapefruits, tangerines, limes, and lemons are especially rich. Cantaloupe, strawberries, guava, and fresh pineapple are good sources. Blueberries, peaches, apples, pears, and banana are lower in vitamin C; if they are eaten in large amounts, they may be important for this vitamin.
The dark green leafy vegetables so rich in carotene are also important for ascorbic acid. Tossed salad, or freshly prepared cabbage slaw, or fresh tomatoes are excellent sources. Broccoli is one of the outstanding sources; one serving, even after cooking, is equal in vitamin content to that of an orange.
Potatoes and sweet potatoes contain much less vitamin C, but it is sometimes said that “the lowly potato has prevented more scurvy than the lordly orange.’ This statement applies, of course, to those people who include appreciable amounts of fresh potato in the daily diet and who exercise care in proper preparation so that the vitamin is retained.
Canned and frozen citrus juices and fruits and tomato juice contain almost as much ascorbic acid as the fresh fruit. Cooked or canned nonacid fruits and vegetables lose more of the ascorbic acid. Frozen vegetables and fruits contain most of the vitamin С of the fresh product. On the other hand, dried foods contain only traces. Some food processors now add ascorbic acid to dehydrated potatoes, apple juice, and other foods. Labels should be read for this information.
*69/234/5*

Viracept (Nelfinavir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Viracept(Nelfinavir)
MICRONUTRIENTS FOR YOUR BODY: FLUORIDE
Fluorine exists in the body in compounds called fluorides. Minute amounts of fluoride enter into the complex calcium salts that form tooth enamel. The fluoride-containing calcium salt is more resistant, and tooth decay has decreased as much as 60 percent in communities where the water supply has contained sufficient fluoride. Fluorides may also be useful in maintaining bone structure. A lesser incidence of osteoporosis has been observed in persons living in areas with fluoridated water.
Fluoride is best provided in the water supply. Many major cities and hundreds of smaller communities now add 1 part fluoride to 1 million parts water (about 1 mg per quart). This inexpensive, safe, and effective public health measure for the protection of the teeth deserves the fullest public support. Alternatives to the use of a fluoridated community water supply are bottled fluoridated water, topical applications of stannous fluoride by a dentist together with use of fluoride toothpaste, or administration of fluoride tablets under a dentist’s supervision.
In some parts of the world natural supplies of drinking water contain over 1.5 parts fluoride per million parts of water. People who live in these areas have mottled teeth; that is, their teeth have a chalky white appearance and later become discolored. Such teeth are resistant to decay and no signs of other health changes have occurred in these people.
*53/234/5*

Zagam (Sparfloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zagam(Sparfloxacin)
NUTRIENTS FOR YOUR BODY: ACID-BASE BALANCE
pH
The pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. A pH of 7.0 is exact neutrality. A pH below 7 indicates acid; the lower the number, the greater the acidity. A pH above 7 indicates alkalinity; the higher the number, the greater the alkalinity.
Body fluids are maintained at a pH ranging between 7.3-5 and 7.45, which is slightly alkaline. A pH of 7.0 to 7.2 is abnormally low; it is called acidosis in relation to the normal level. It is seen in uncontrolled diabetic patients who are excreting large quantities of ketones. It also occurs in severe starvation, and in renal failure.
A pH above 7.5 is labeled as alkalosis. It results when there is prolonged, severe vomiting so that there is much loss of stomach acid. Alkalosis also occurs with excessive ingestion of soluble antacids such as sodium bicarbonate because such compounds are rapidly absorbed form the gastrointestinal tract.
Reaction of foods
Some foods are potentially alkali-producing because they contain important amounts of calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Other foods are acid-producing because they contain greater amounts of sulfur, chlorine, and phosphorus than they do of the alkali-producing elements. Still other foods are low in mineral elements and are considered to be neutral.
Acid-producing: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, legumes, cereal foods, com, almonds, chestnuts, coconut, prunes, plums, cranberries
Alkali-producing: fruits, vegetables, milk, peanuts, walnuts, Brazil nuts
Neutral: butter, margarine, oils, cooking fats, sugar, syrup, starch, tapioca
Certain fruits such as lemons, grapefruit, oranges, and peaches contain organic acids that give a sour (acid) taste. These acids are weak and they do not increase the acidity of the stomach. The hydrochloric acid in the stomach is a strong acid that is useful for the digestion of proteins. The organic acids in fruits are oxidized, just as are the carbohydrates, to yield energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
Plums, cranberries, and prunes contain an organic acid that is not metabolized by the body. The excretion of this acid increases the acidity of the urine; therefore, these fruits are sometimes recommended with other acid-producing foods to help counteract the formation of certain types of renal calculi.
Regulation of acid-base balance
A number of acids are normally produced in the metabolism of foodstuffs. The body has several efficient mechanisms for taking care of these acids so that the normal acid-base balance is not disturbed.
A principal acid produced in metabolism is carbonic acid. This is released through the lungs by exhalation of carbon dioxide. When the carbon dioxide content of the blood increases, the individual breathes more rapidly and more deeply to get rid of more carbon dioxide.
Minerals function in buffer-salts. A buffer is a substance that can react with an acid or an alkali without much change occurring in the pH. The sodium phosphate and carbonate buffer systems are important. Proteins are also good buffers.
The kidneys are the final regulators of acid-base balance. When excess acid is being produced, the kidneys secrete highly acid urine, so that little change takes place in the pH of the blood. The kidneys also synthesize the ammonium (NH4+) ion which can combine with acid so that the body loses less of its sodium.
The healthy individual maintains acid-base balance regardless of the composition of his diet. Moreover, there is no evidence that shows the merits of an acid-producing or alkali-producing diet. In certain pathologic conditions such as renal failure or renal calculi these characteristics of the diet may be adjusted.
*60/234/5*

Rocaltrol (Calcitriol)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Rocaltrol(Calcitriol)
MICRONUTRIENTS FOR YOUR BODY: IRON
Functions
The total content of iron in the adult body is only 3 to 5 gm. Most of this iron is present in hemoglobin, a protein that consists of an iron-containing compound, heme, attached to a protein, globin. Hemoglobin is carried in the circulation in the red blood cells. It picks up oxygen in the lungs and transports the oxygen to the tissues so that oxidation reactions can take place in the cells. From the cells the hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide to the lungs to be exhaled.
Myoglobin is an iron-containing protein similar to hemoglobin and is present in muscle tissue. Iron is also a constituent of many enzymes that are required for the use of glucose and fatty acids for energy.
Utilization
Iron salts are relatively insoluble, and the proportion absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is small and varies widely. The amount absorbed depends upon the body’s need for iron. The well-nourished adult absorbs only 5 to 10 per cent of the iron in his diet, but somewhat larger percentages are absorbed by children during periods of rapid growth, by pregnant women, and by people who have anemia.
Iron salts are more soluble in acid, so most of the absorption takes place from the upper part of the small intestine. The amount of iron absorbed depends also upon the food source. In general, heme iron (that is, iron occurring in meats) is much more efficiently absorbed than is non-heme iron (from plant foods.) Vitamin С improves the absorption of iron, as do also the organic acids present in some fruits. The iron in plant foods is somewhat less absorbed than that in animal foods. Antacid medications interfere with the absorption of iron.
Iron is used very economically by the body. When the red blood cells are destroyed after their normal life-span of about 120 days, the hemoglobin is broken down. The iron that is released is used over and over again.
Small amounts of iron are lost daily in perspiration, in the sloughing of cells from the skin and mucosal membranes, in hair and nail clippings, and through excretion in the urine. These losses account for 0.5 to 1 mg iron per day. Menstrual losses are about 15 to 30 mg per month, or an average of 0.5 to 1 mg per day.
Daily allowances
The allowance for the well-nourished woman is 18 mg iron per day, whereas that for the healthy man is 10 mg. Infants and children need liberal intakes of iron to take care of the expanding blood circulation as they grow.
*49/234/5*

Zovirax (Acyclovir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Zovirax(Acyclovir)
Other names: Virest
REPORTED BENEFITS OF EVENING PRIMROSE OIL ON MS (MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS)
There have been two surveys to find out what people with MS thought about evening primrose oil. One was carried out by Bio-Oil Research Ltd., who manufactures Naudicelle. The other was conducted by ARMS (Action for Research into Multiple Sclerosis).
In the Bio-Oil Research survey 480 MS sufferers took part. Sixty-five per cent felt there had been some improvement in their condition. Forty-three per cent said there had been a stabilization of their condition – they had got no better, and they had got no worse. Twenty-two per cent said there had been fewer and less severe attacks. Twenty per cent said certain symptoms had been alleviated. Thirteen per cent reported an improvement in general health. People in the ‘some improvement’ category mentioned the following benefits:
• Increased mobility
• Increased walking ability
• Reduced spasm or tremor
• Improved bladder function
• Improved eyesight
• Improved condition of hair and skin
• Relief of constipation
• Improvement in wound healing
• Regaining correct weight
• Heavy periods returned to normal
Note: The improved group contained a significantly higher proportion of MS patients who had been diagnosed within the preceding four years.
In the ARMS survey, out of 177 completed questionnaires, 127 said they had improved, 33 reported no change, and 17 felt that their symptoms became worse.
Even though these surveys have no scientific standing, and all the answers are based only on the subjective opinion of the MS sufferer who filled in the questionnaire, the results are nevertheless extremely encouraging.
ARMS members were also asked how long they had been taking evening primrose oil. The answers showed that improvements increased when they had been taking the capsules for more than four months. Beneficial effects appeared as follows:
Under 4 months 35%
4 months to 1 year 73%
1 to 2 years 73%
2 to 3 years 82%
(At the time of the survey, very few members had been on Naudicelle for longer than .three years.) Of the people who returned the completed questionnaires, 141 were also on some kind of diet. The results showed that the people who were exercising some control over their diet (i.e. less saturated fat etc.) had better results with the evening primrose oil.
*33/60/5*