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Archive for the ‘Anti-Infectives’ Category

Eurax (Crotamiton)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Eurax(Crotamiton)
DISEASES OF THE SKIN: DERMATITIS
This simply means inflammation of the skin and is the term so often applied when it is impossible to be more definite in diagnosis. It goes through many different forms and it is very difficult to describe it in a general way. It may differ on the various areas of the body, and no two patients seem to show precisely the same symptoms. It is just as difficult to put one’s finger on specific causes of the trouble; in some it may follow indiscretions in eating; in others it seems to be related to nervous and emotional strains. In some it may be just a redness of the skin with very little discomfort; in others it appears to cause a good deal of discomfort. It may be accompanied by swelling of the tissues of the skin, and scales may form and gradually fall away. In some people it seems to come and go without making any great change in the skin itself.
Dermatitis should be regarded as a reaction of the skin to many different causes. It may be a manifestation of disorder of an internal organ, and is usually directly related to the alimentary tract. On the other hand it may be the result to some kind of drug treatment, and it is well known that contact with certain plants may produce a violent reaction of the skin. The use of X-rays and other powerful agents may cause such a reaction, and the important thing in treatment is to eliminate the irritating agent.
There are some who regard chilblains as due to a localized dermatitis following the reaction of a poor circulation subjected to intense cold. Certainly measures which improve the circulation are of the greatest help in this troublesome complaint.
*27/154/5*

Aralen (Chloroquine Phosphate)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Aralen(ChloroquinePhosphate)
Other names: Chloroquine
HIGH-TECH MEDICINE: PLASTIC EYES
When contact lenses came out, millions of people threw away their glasses. In a few months, many were sorry. The contacts hurt. Every day, you had to take them out of your eyes. And, much too often, you were down on your knees like a grazing sheep looking for a lens that had dropped onto the floor.
Now, thanks to plastic engineering, contact lens wearers can leave their plastic disks in their eyes for up to 1 week, playing sports and sleeping with them in.
The new lenses are called extended-wear contact lenses, and more than a half-million Americans now wear them.
“You can’t tell they’re in your eyes,” says Barry Maddox, a restaurant buyer in St. Louis. “It’s almost as if I have no eye problem.” Since he was 13 years old, Mr. Maddox had worn thick, unattractive eyeglasses.
The old contact lenses didn’t let much oxygen through to the cornea, the outside window of the eye. Without oxygen, the cornea could swell up. So engineers created a plastic that soaked up water like a sponge. The water lets the oxygen through to the cornea.
“It’s like wearing a teardrop with a lens,” says Dr. Louis Wilson, director of the contact lens clinic at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta. Many eye doctors now prescribe daily disposable lenses.
*45/266/5*

Lamprene (Clofazimine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Lamprene(Clofazimine)
NERVOUS SYSTEM: SPINAL NERVES AS A PART OF PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
As nerve fibers leave the cord, they form nerve roots, the motor fibers in front and the sensory ones in back. Then the roots are joined together in a series of bundles now called nerves. There is, on each side, one nerve for each vertebra. As the body is developing, it grows faster than the cord does, so the nerves do not leave the canal immediately as they come off but run down for varying distances inside. This collection of nerves in the part of the spinal canal below the cord is called the cauda equina, or horse’s tail.
Each nerve as it leaves by its own special bony pathway is a mixed motor and sensory nerve, but it does not long remain so. The motor nerve has its cells in the cord and its fibers may run from there to the remotest part of the body. From these distant places the sensory fibers come back to knots of cell bodies called ganglions. These are just out side the spinal column. Fibers from there form the posterior roots mentioned above and continue into the cord.
We have a good deal of control over these nerves, but not absolute. For instance, one could direct them to move the hand and pick up a piece of metal. But, if the metal were unexpectedly hot, it would be dropped and the hand snatched away before any thinking came into play.
*47/276/5*

Synalar (Fluocinolone)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###
LENSES FOR PROTECTION AND CORRECTION OF EYES
Bernice Pherigo of Columbus, Indiana, blind for forty-two years, could see again because of an unusual device like a telescope that passes images through a hole in her eyelid to her retina. The device is a Teflon disc in an optical cylinder – a lens developed in the early 1970s by Hernando Cardona, M.D., an ophthalmologist on the staff of Columbia University.
In the fall of 1977, the patient, who was then sixty-five years old, had the lens implanted into her right eye by Frank Polak, M.D. of the Florida Health Center’s Eye Clinic in Gainesville, Florida. The woman had lost her vision in both eyes when she was in her twenties because of a disease called ocular pemphigus. The disease causes blisters and scars on the outer surface of the eye. In Miss Pherigo’s case, the scar tissue was removed several times in surgery but continued to grow back. Her vision deteriorated to the point where she could only distinguish between light and darkness.
All that is changed today, for the combination of eye surgery and corrective lenses has Miss Pherigo seeing again. Over the past few years the woman has been getting acquainted with a technological phenomenon that passed her by in her forty-year period without sight. Now she’s watching movements on a television screen. There are worlds of small joys such as colors, and the look of furniture in her apartment that she has been experiencing. The vision in Bernice Pherigo’s right eye is about 20-40 now. She can read large-print magazines and newspapers, and eyeglasses have been added to improve her vision of faraway objects.
Working like a fixed-focus camera, the lens in Bernice’s eye receives light and transmits it to the eye’s retina, where the image is recorded. The patient’s upper and lower eyelids have been permanently stitched together and the lens protrudes through a hole in the eyelid. There is no peripheral vision, but Miss Pherigo can move the cylinder with muscles that normally open and close the eyelid.
Cases such as this of Bernice Pherigo are highly dramatic applications of lenses used to restore sight. Those few blind people who have normal retinas and whose corneal damage cannot be repaired by cornea transplant can benefit from a lens implantation. Other people not requiring such dramatic restoration wear ordinary eyeglasses to preserve and enhance the vision that they possess.
*33/127/5*

Sporanox (Itraconazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Sporanox(Itraconazole)
MICRONUTRIENTS FOR YOU: IODINE
Most of the body iodine is present in the thyroid gland, but all cells contain minute traces. Iodine is a constituent of two hormones, thyroxine and thyroglobulin. These hormones (1) regulate energy metabolism, (2) are involved in the synthesis of protein and cholesterol, and (3) facilitate the conversion of carotene to vitamin A.
Iodine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and stored in the thyroid gland. Intakes in excess of body needs are promptly excreted in the urine.
The allowance for iodine for men and women is 150 mcg. Foods grown along the seacoast, saltwater fish, and shellfish are good sources. Breads to which iodates have been added as a dough conditioner are also good sources. The most reliable way to ensure an adequate intake of iodine is through the use of iodized salt.
Clinical problems
A deficiency of iodine leads to a decreased production of thyroxine, and, in turn, a lowered rate of energy metabolism. In an attempt to produce more thyroid hormones the thyroid gland enlarges. This condition is called simple or endemic goiter. In a mild deficiency the only symptom noted is a slight enlargement of the thyroid gland, visible at the neckline. However, if the condition persists, the woman who has a simple goiter and who fails to get sufficient iodine during pregnancy will be unable to supply the fetus with its needs; thus, the baby is more severely affected than its mother was. When the deficiency is severe, growth is retarded and mentality is dulled.
Simple goiter, once frequently seen in the Midwestern states where the soil content of iodine is low, now occurs rarely in the United States. The use of iodized salt is credited with this decline. Endemic goiter is still a major problem in some Central and South American countries, Asia, and Africa.
*51/234/5*

Tequin (Gatifloxacin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Tequin(Gatifloxacin)
CONDOMS
Condoms have never been considered a reliable form of contraception and doctors rarely advise patients to use them as such. Since the advent of the AIDS virus, condoms have been widely touted as an AIDS “prophylactic.” This emphasis is surprising considering the poor history of condoms as a form of contraception. On the subject of history, Don Juan was reputed to use a silk condom and historical writings also suggest that sausage skins or animal intestines were used as enthusiastic, if not effective forms of early contraception.
General practitioners frequently have women attending, worried about the consequences of a burst condom. Dr. Pamela Chick, formerly of the Family Planning Association in Queensland, points out that if a condom complies with Australian standards it is unlikely that consistent bursting is due to penis size. It is far more likely that the condom is not being put on properly, is torn with a fingernail, has passed the expiry date or has not been stored correctly.
If people are having trouble with breakages they should follow the instructions for use – carefully, taking particular care to remove all air from the tip of the condom while applying it and lubricate with a water based lubricant (KY Gel etc.). It is very important that the lubricant is water based as an oil based lubricant can destroy the rubber. The avoidance of extra thin condoms is also recommended and condoms should be used before the expiry date and stored correctly.
Contrary to popular belief condoms are available in many different shapes and sizes. For those wanting a tighter condom, Crest (they are very thin – take care with fingernails etc.) and Duo Gold Shaped are recommended. As well as these two condoms, Liaison Joie comes manufactured narrower towards the base thus ensuring a tighter fit.
Those wishing to purchase a wider or a longer condom might like to try Ansell Chekmates and Lifestyle Ultrasure and if the user finds a particular brand of condoms thick, rubbery, smelly or tough, they may like to try: Crest (check the freshness) and Durex Featherlite (pink).
As a final word of warning: be careful with multicolored and flavored imports (mail order and sex shops) and always check for use by dates.
*33/131/5*

Lariam (Mefloquine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Lariam(Mefloquine)
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: CRANIAL NERVES
The spinal nerves are numbered according to the vertebrae where they emerge. There are twelve pairs of nerves very similar to these which come directly off the brain, and emerge through holes in the skull, or cranium. Hence they are called cranial nerves. They are both numbered and named. Medical students are forced to memorize a most discouraging number of facts. For aid they often resort to doggerel, some of it vulgar, for vulgarity is often closely associated with the facts of life. The cranial nerves, however, are memorized by the aid of verse chaste enough to be safely quoted here.
Animals vary greatly in the comparative size and usefulness of different nerves. Most wild animals find the sense of smell absolutely necessary for their existence. Without it they would have practically no defense against their enemies. A dog kept as a pet could probably get along, but he would have a very sad time.
Smell in humans is not much more than a luxury, although it does take part in taste and has considerable effect on our digestive system. It is evident that our smelling apparatus is very inefficient. It takes a strong odor, from the point of view of an animal, even to make us aware of its presence and our smelling is quickly fatigued. The delicate fragrance of flowers, for instance, soon ceases to be noticeable if we stay with it.
On the other hand, sight is highly important to us and our optic nerve is a large and efficient one. Our facial nerve is a busy one, for the muscles of our face are many and active. When someone commented on the old features of David Garrick, the actor, Samuel Johnson replied that it was natural, for Davy’s features had much more wear and tear than other men’s’. The sensations and motions of our mouths and throats are so many and important that the nerve supply here is great. Our acoustic or hearing nerve is undoubtedly sluggish as compared with those of most animals. The answer to all this, of course, is that for our purposes our nerves do pretty well, but we could not compete with the animals in the struggle for life if the outcome depended on what we can do with our nerves.
*48/276/5*

Diflucan (Fluconazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Diflucan(Fluconazole)
TAKING CARE OF ILL CHILDREN: FEEDING SICK CHILDREN
Hyper-alimentation by itself has revolutionized the care of all critically ill children, not just preemies. Some babies are born with their stomachs and intestines outside their bodies. It takes three or more operations to repair this defect. Many babies starved between surgeries. Now surgeons save four of five such infants because hyper-alimentation keeps them alive between operations. Similarly, chronic diarrhea formerly killed more than three of four of the infants whom it attacked. Hyper-alimentation now rescues nine of 10.
It helped 3-year-old Taina Gomez of New York City, who was born prematurely and could not absorb food taken by mouth after much of her small intestine unaccountably died. Now, a food pump pushes liquid nutrition into the big vein of her heart. But it costs 15,000 dollars a month to keep Taina alive at home.
Dr. William Heird, of Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City, who started Taina on hyper-alimentation, says, “Some of these children may have to be fed this way for life. It’s not clear that they can live this way but, for now, they are living.”
*61/266/5*

Retrovir (Zidovudine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Retrovir(Zidovudine)
THE OPHTHALMIC CONTROVERSY OVER RADIAL KERATOTOMY
Several years ago in Marietta, Georgia, 32-year-old nearsighted Alfred Gresham, an engineer, underwent RK for his right eye. Gresham was ready to have his left eye operated on for curing his nearsightedness, but the man found himself caught in the middle of a small but polite war between his eye surgeon and the Georgia Ophthalmological Society. This professional body, warning of the danger of possible delayed side-effects from the RK operation which is spreading rapidly in the United States and overseas, persuaded Georgia state hospitals to temporarily ban the procedure in their operating rooms. Studies which by now have convinced most ophthalmologists that RK is a valid, safe, effective operation for permanent correction of nearsightedness had not yet been carried out.
Gresham told us then that he was “mad as hell” about the “medical politics” which might have prevented the operation on his right eye until the Georgia Ophthalmological Society conducted what could be a multi-year investigation “to determine the procedure’s effectiveness and safety.” This is still sometimes found to be the attitude expressed by some traditionalists in ophthalmology who don’t have training in performing radial keratotomy or the other breakthrough methods of high-tech vision improvement.
Until the fall of 1984, with presentation of the Prospective Evaluation of Radial Keratotomy, PERK study, the American Association of Ophthalmology (AAO) considered the RK procedure investigational rather than experimental. Surgeons who supported the procedure -numbering among them some of the nation’s most distinguished professors and eye surgeons, including one former president of the AAO – agreed that the answers won’t be all put together about side effects until patients have reached the post-surgery mark twenty years from now. But, based on experience with more-complex corneal surgery and with accidental corneal injury, they foresee no serious problems ahead.
Nevertheless, controversy in ophthalmology about refractive surgery continues. It is rife and disagreements are heated among eye physicians when it comes to RK. For example, Long Island, New York ophthalmologist Norman O. Stahl, M.D., was banned from doing RK at his hospital. He could not practice the procedure there and warnings came down from the administration office that he might be thrown out if he continued to try. Dr. Stahl responded by setting up a surgical suite in his private office. No one could stop him from performing the dozens of myopia-correction procedures there.
Since Dr. Stahl took this step, in fact, in-office surgery – called “office-based surgery” – not only for eyes but for a host of other body problems has become rather common. An entirely new medical industry to cut the cost of medical care by eliminating hospital expenses has arisen with the new office-based surgery.
At least four professional groups have been pooling data about RK in order to make some judgments about its safety and effectiveness. They include the National Institute of Health-funded multi-university study headed by George Waring, M.D. of Atlanta, Georgia; the National Refractive Keratotomy study group under the direction of Leo Bores, M.D., of Santa Fe, New Mexico; the Kerato-Refractive Society, under secretary Ronald Schachar, M.D., of Dennison, Texas; and the International Corneal Plastic Micro-Surgery Society, coordinated by Herbert L. Gould, M.D. of White Plains, New York. Additionally, the National Advisory Eye Council has put out a call to all patients who have undergone RK and to all optometrists who have refracted the eyes of such patients to report their observations.
The National Advisory Eye Council is the principal advisory group to the National Eye Institute. In order to discharge its responsibilities to the American public and to the scientific and health care community, the Council has acquired as much information as possible about the safety of RK on humans. The Council has urged people to share whatever information they may possess abut eye problems that have resulted from this surgical procedure.
In addition to complications of the cooperative effort itself, the Council members were looking for any secondary problems, such, as ocular rupture or perforation. Ronald G. Geller, Ph.D., Executive Secretary of the National Eye Institute, advises interested physicians and patients about his survey results. They indicate that no such problems or side effects exist for recipients of radial keratotomy.
Some opponents of RK have attempted to suppress the availability of the operation. They tried to institute a moratorium on the procedure to be done. They also encouraged health insurance companies not to reimburse patients who ordinarily would be covered for financial outlays.
*30/127/5*

Valtrex (Valacyclovir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Valtrex(Valacyclovir)
NERVOUS SYSTEM: WELL-PROTECTED BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
I should say that the chief of the original functions of the fluid is that of protection. The pressure due to any swelling in the central nervous system by means of this fluid can be distributed over the whole area rather than concentrated dangerously at any one point. Nothing in the whole body is more carefully protected than the brain and cord. The skull makes a very strong bony case and even if it is broken, that is not necessarily serious. It is what happens to the soft parts within that counts. I would say that the spinal cord is even more carefully protected. The “backbone,” as we call the whole bony combination, has twenty-four vertebrae as well as the sacrum and coccyx at the bottom. The resulting great number of joints allows it to give, rather than break, but each joint normally gives but a mighty small distance.
The vertebrae lock firmly together. Their powerful ligaments imbed them in great masses of gristle. The whole is reinforced by the muscles of the back, most powerful in the body. Could you have this demonstrated to you, I do not see how you could help being skeptical of the “manipulators” who find that your physical ills are due to the displacement of these vertebrae and who put them back in place. We physicians do occasionally see dislocated vertebrae, usually in the neck after severe accidents. They are pretty apt to result in paralysis if not death.
The powerful unyielding protecting walls not infrequently are a disadvantage. If a tumor or bleeding or other condition causes increase of bulk, the rigid walls allow no room for swelling and increased pressure results. The delicate nervous tissue can stand little of this and the results may be disastrous.
One distressing result of this lack of spare space has received much publicity of late years. That is the pain and disability usually in the lower back but at times in the neck associated with a “slipped disk.” Between each pair of vertebrae is a mass of spongy springy material which cushions shocks and allows guarded movements. Sometimes this ruptures and pushes into the spinal canal. But a nerve is always present on either side between the vertebrae, and space is limited. The displaced material therefore causes pressure on the nerve and resulting pain. Surgical removal of the disk is often necessary, although this is far from being always the case.
Perhaps the most striking thing about the nervous system is its lack of the power of regeneration. Destroy a nerve cell and it is gone forever and no other will take its place. However, the nerve fiber may be injured somewhere along its course. All the part thus separated from the body of the cell will waste away. But from the point of injury the wounded cell may slowly push out fresh fiber. Even this re-growth compares poorly with what we get in other tissue. Surgeons cut many tissues which in a few weeks may be as good as new. If they cut across a nerve fiber, the function of that nerve is lost for many months. Nervous tissue also is delicate and easily injured. That is why the brain and spinal cord are protected as no other parts of the body are.
This system is the great regulator of the body. Even the endocrine system, whose importance is so recognized now, is said to be dominated by the pituitary and this latter is lorded over by a part of the brain. Once it is necessary to activate the body, the nervous system is in command.
*51/276/5*

Rebetol (Ribavirin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Rebetol(Ribavirin)
MACRONUTRIENTS AS NUTRIENTS FOR YOUR BODY: CALCIUM
Functions
About 99 per cent of the body calcium is found in the bones and teeth where it is combined with phosphorus and other elements to give rigidity to the skeleton. The bones also serve as the storehouse for calcium needed for a number of cellular functions. Calcium is required for the complex process of blood coagulation. Together with other elements it regulates the passage of materials into and out of cells; controls the transmission of nerve messages; brings about the normal contraction of muscles, including the heart; activates enzymes such as pancreatic lipase; and aids in the absorption of vitamin B12.
Utilization
Calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is regulated according to the body needs for maintenance and growth. The daily absorption ranges from 10 to 40 per cent of the dietary intake. A child who is growing rapidly absorbs a greater proportion of the calcium in his diet than the adult who simply needs to maintain the proper level of calcium in the bones and soft tissues.
Since calcium salts are more soluble in acid solution, most of the absorption takes place from the upper small intestine. Three hormones control the levels of calcium in the blood. When the blood calcium level falls below normal levels, parathormone is secreted by the parathyroid gland. This hormone stimulates the kidney to change vitamin D to its active form, another hormone. Active vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium from the intestine, and also releases calcium from bone so that the blood level rises to normal level. If the blood calcium level is too high, calcitonin is secreted by the thyroid gland. This shuts off the action of the parathyroid and thus brings the calcium level of the blood to normal range.
Daily allowances
The calcium allowance for schoolchildren and adults throughout life is 800 mg. During periods of rapid growth in teenagers and during pregnancy and lactation the calcium allowance is 1200 mg.
Food sources
Any kind of milk – fresh whole, skim, evaporated, dry, yogurt, or buttermilk – is an equally good source of calcium. Hard cheeses such as American and Swiss are excellent. You would need to eat 1 1/2 cups of ice cream or cottage cheese to get the same amount of calcium as that in one cup of milk. Cream cheese and butter, although dairy products are not sources of calcium.
Kale, turnip greens, mustard greens, and collards are good sources of calcium. Broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower rate as fair sources. Such other greens as spinach, chard, and beet greens contain oxalic acid, which combines with calcium in the intestines to form an insoluble salt. This insoluble compound cannot be absorbed into the blood. Therefore, these greens should not be counted on for calcium, but they do not affect the utilization of calcium from other foods.
Among the fruits, oranges contribute some calcium, although oranges cannot take the place of milk. Canned salmon is a fairly good source of calcium if the tiny bones are eaten. Clams, oysters, lobster, dried beans, and peas are moderate sources, but these foods are not eaten often enough to make an appreciable contribution. Meats and cereal foods are poor sources.
Clinical problems
Calcium deficiency becomes evident only after years of inadequate intake. A dietary deficiency does not lower the blood calcium since the bones will supply the amounts needed. As much as 30 to 40 per cent of bone calcium is lost before changes can be detected by X-ray.
Long periods of immobilization such as those following an injury or being bedfast increase calcium excretion, and many of these persons are in negative calcium balance. Rickets, now rarely seen in infants and children in the United States, is a deficiency more directly related to vitamin D lack, but calcium and phosphorus metabolism are also involved.
Periodontal disease (changes in the structure of the gums) is believed to be an early sign of bone change. About 14 million women and a lesser number of men in the United States, chiefly in the later years of life, have osteoporosis. The older person experiences shorter stature, bone pain and susceptibility to fractures. Osteoporosis is a disease of complex causes, including faulty steroid production after menopause. Some research workers have shown that it occurs more often in non-milk drinkers.
*47/234/5*

Famvir (Famciclovir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Famvir(Famciclovir)
HIGH TECH MEDICINE: USING DNA FINGERPRINTING
Eric Lander, associate professor of biology at MIT’s Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is among those urging caution to law enforcement agencies now rushing to incorporate DNA fingerprinting into their police procedures. He says the method Dr. Jeffreys has devised may be flawless in theory but is not always so in practice, due to mix-ups that might occur in the laboratory.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation now has its own DNA lab. “Over the past 30 years, we have been doing a lot of research on biological evidence,” says John Hicks of the FBI’s laboratory division. “We know that somewhere in that stuff is the key to helping solve crimes. DNA profiling is the breakthrough we’ve been looking for.”
The FBI is training technicians from police labs throughout the country in DNA fingerprinting. It also encourages the use of universal standards, something Mr. Lander says he favors.
Several states now are taking blood samples from convicted rapists and other violent criminals. Their DNA profiles will be stored in a data bank for use by police across the United States. Using DNA fingerprinting, for example, detectives could trace a rapist convicted in Utah who later rapes in Ohio by matching the DNA “prints” on file with those in traces found on the victims. Statistics show that two of three criminals are arrested within a 3-year period for repeating their offenses.
Civil liberties groups warn that innocents might be convicted in the rush to apply the new technology. “DNA evidence is based on probabilities, not on exact matches,” says Janlori Goldman, who leads the Privacy and Technology Project for the American Civil Liberties Union. “Juries tend to be overwhelmed by the technology. It is a complex science, not easy to reduce to simple terms.”
But criminology is not DNA’s only arena. Dr. Svante Paabo, a researcher in Munich, Germany, formerly at the University of California at Berkeley, has DNA-fingerprinted a 7,000-year-old human brain found in a Florida swamp. He discovered that its DNA is a type unique to American Indians and Asians. “This might be a link to the ancient origins of native Americans,” Dr. Paabo says.
An even greater endeavor is the Human Genome Project. An international cooperative effort of scientists, it will try to map human DNA and the location of every gene it contains. That could lead to the improved detection, prevention, and treatment of all genetic diseases. It also will help with criminal identification: if scientists can pinpoint the gene for eye color, for example, a DNA analysis will tell the criminal’s eye color. Further clues might tell a suspect’s age and other characteristics. Although pessimists believed that the entire genome solution would go well into the next century, it looks as though new techniques have speeded the process.
*68/266/5*

Lamisil (Terbinafine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Lamisil(Terbinafine)
Other names: Brethaire
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL AND THE PROBLEMS OF ALCOHOLISM
Evening primrose oil works in alcoholism because it is rich in gammalinolenic acid. This means it can avoid the enzyme block which prevents linoleic acid from converting to GLA. It increases the body’s supplies of essential fatty acids, and its store of DGLA, and means that PGE1 levels can be raised.
These properties make evening primrose oil useful in a number of conditions associated with alcoholism.
Withdrawal symptoms. Evening primrose oil can alleviate some of the symptoms usually associated with withdrawal from alcohol. In a series of studies conducted by Dr Iain Glen of the Highland Psychiatric Research Group at Craig Dunain Hospital in Inverness, Scotland, patients treated with Efamol while withdrawing from alcohol did much better than the patients on a placebo.
Efamol was found to reduce the amount of tranquillizers needed by alcoholics in the throes of withdrawal. There was also a marked difference in the essential fatty acid content of the plasma and red blood cells after 24 weeks of treatment on Efamol, compared with the group given a placebo. Efamol also lowered the incidence of hallucinations during the withdrawal phase.
This study on human alcoholics confirms earlier work done on mice by Dr John Rotrosen and Dr David Sagarnick at New York University, who got mice addicted to alcohol by giving them an alcohol-rich diet. They then took away the alcohol abruptly and over the next few hours there was a dramatic withdrawal syndrome, similar to what happens with human alcoholics. The doctors then injected either PGE1 or Efamol into the animals. This dramatically alleviated the withdrawal problems of the addicted mice. Tremor, irritability, over-excitability and convulsions were all reduced by about 50%.
Liver and other tissue damage. A common complication of alcoholism is fatty degeneration of the liver. Another study done by Dr Iain Glen in Inverness, Scotland, showed that Efamol can go a long way towards correcting liver damage due to alcohol. The Alcoholic Clinic at Craig Dunain Hospital conducted a double-blind trial with about 100 patients. No one knew who was taking the capsules of evening primrose oil, and who was taking the identical capsules containing liquid paraffin.
The group taking the evening primrose oil (Efamol 500) did much better than the others. The results showed that evening primrose oil can improve liver function and its biochemistry can return to normal much more quickly, compared with a group of alcoholics who were given the placebo.
Hangovers. Evening primrose oil is highly effective in preventing hangovers. Doctors researching this treatment have tried this for themselves, and found that four to six capsules straight after drinking and before going to bed greatly reduce the symptoms of a hangover.
*35/60/5*

Viramune (Nevirapine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Viramune(Nevirapine)
FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE: WATER
Water is most important to life. We can survive, at best, for only a few days without water; persons who have been lost in the desert have sometimes perished within 24 hours.
Distribution
About 50 to 60 per cent of the total body weight is made up of water. The proportion varies somewhat, with fat persons having less body water than lean persons. Infants and young children have more body water than older persons.
About three fourths of the water in the body is within the cells; this is referred to as intracellular fluid. The remaining water is in the blood and lymph circulation and in the fluids around the cells and tissues. This is called extracellular fluid.
Functions
Every cell in the body contains water. Muscle tissue contains as much as 80 per cent, fat tissue about 20 per cent, and bone about 25 per cent water.
Water is the solvent for materials within the body. The foods we eat are digested by enzymes in an abundance of digestive juices; the nutrients are carried in solution across the intestinal wall; the blood transports nutrients to all body tissues; materials dissolved in water are transported across the cell membranes; chemical reactions take place in the presence of water; and body wastes are carried by the blood for elimination by the kidneys, lungs, skin, and bowel.
Water is also a lubricant, for it avoids friction between moving body parts. Water regulates the body temperature through its evaporation from the skin, thus giving a cooling effect. On very humid days we feel uncomfortable because water does not evaporate very readily.
Normal water losses
Water is lost from the body through the kidneys, skin, lungs, and bowel. Usually, most of the water is lost in the urine. The amount of urine is related to the daily intake of water and other fluids, and varies from about 600 to 2000 ml. Because the nitrogenous and other materials must be kept in solution, about 600 ml urine is the minimum or obligatory excretion.
An appreciable amount of water is lost through the skin by insensible and visible perspiration. Insensible perspiration is so called because one is not aware of it; it evaporates as rapidly as it is formed. On the other hand, with vigorous activity, especially in warm weather, we lose much additional water through visible perspiration. A baseball player, for example, might lose 3 to 5 liters of fluid through perspiration. Appreciable amounts of urea, salts, and traces of other mineral elements are also lost in the visible perspiration. When we perspire a great deal, the urine volume is reduced.
The adult loses about 350 ml water in the air exhaled through the lungs. The amount of water lost in the feces is small, averaging about 100 to 150 ml daily.
*55/234/5*

Epivir (Lamivudine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Epivir(Lamivudine)
NUTRITION BASICS FOR MEN: PREVENTING THE DRAIN – CUT DOWN ON FAT
Getting too much fat in the diet has been linked to a wide variety of male diseases: heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes, to name a few. But many men are confused about dietary fat because it comes in three different forms: saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated. While it’s true that some of these fats do some good, experts agree that you get more benefit from limiting fats of all kinds.
Your diet should consist of no more (and preferably less) than 30 percent fat. (Most American men eat about 37 percent of their total calories as fat.) Not only will this help improve your overall health profile, you might also notice something visible start to happen: You’ll begin losing weight. That’s because the body burns carbohydrates—the type of calories you get from grains, pasta, fruits and vegetables—more quickly than it does fats. Cut down on the fat you put in your belly and you’ll cut down on the fat you put on it.
*14/257/8*

Norvir (Ritonavir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Norvir(Ritonavir)
TAKING VITAMINS: LARGE DOSES CAN BE DANGEROUS
Customarily, the interest in vitamins is directed exclusively at insufficient intake, and the question of excessive intake is not raised. But there have been plenty of reports of injury caused by the excessive use of vitamins. Eskimos and arctic explorers have long known that they could be poisoned by eating much polar bear liver. Polar bears live on a good deal of the same kind of food as the fish do. The fish in those cold seas have large amounts of Vitamins A and D stored in their liver. Patients in our warmer climates have been injured by large doses of these liver oils. Doctors have a good deal of difficulty in recognizing these cases of hypervitaminosis. In the first place, the signs and symptoms do not appear for a long while after the vitamins have been taken. Then the patients begin to itch and have lack of appetite. They notice tender swellings in different parts of their body and find that there is limitation of motion in their joints. It is usually children who get these vitamins. If the trouble is suspected and the parents are quizzed about it, it is found that they have been giving their children larger doses than have been prescribed. They have the delusion common to almost everybody, even to doctors, that if a little of something does good, more of it will do more good.
Probably you have forgotten by now the article in one of the most spectacular of our periodicals, telling how arthritis could be made well by large doses of Vitamin D. That article made a lot of trouble, as was demonstrated in a meeting of the American Medical Association a few years ago, where horrible examples of bone changes, following this abuse, were shown.
Patients who get too large doses over a length of time lose calcium from their bones, but strangely enough there may be great deposits of calcium in the tissues where they do not belong. The patients really feel sick; they are sick at their stomach. They have urinary frequency and diarrhea, lots of pain in their intestinal canal, and often vomiting. The trouble may go on and even result in death. The treatment is simple enough, and gives good results when taken early. It merely consists in seeing that they do not get Vitamin D or much calcium in their diet. Take the patients off their high vitamin regime, and nature does the rest, if too much harm has not already been done.
*69/276/5*

Macrobid (Nitrofurantoin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Macrobid(Nitrofurantoin)
Other names: Furadantin, Macrodantin
BARIUM ENEMA
Medical politics and a demarcation dispute lurk beneath the innocent appearing surface of the Barium Sulfate Enema. The use of flexible fibre optic telescopes by gastroenterologists provides a better view of the lower digestive tract than does the Barium Enema.
If Barium studies are still widely requested by general practitioners it is because competition for the Medicare dollar is fierce. Today’s G.P.s want patients in their own surgeries; and not in the waiting rooms of specialist colleagues. Barium studies bring patients back with a packet of X- Rays and a radiologist’s report. Exit the gastroenterologist. The G.P. rules O.K.
Fortunately over the years the volume of barium swallowed by mouth or introduced in to the back passage as an enema by radiologists has been reduced. Furthermore the difference between Barium studies and endoscopy in terms of reliability is not great. In any event most people prefer Barium studies to the traumatic and uncomfortable insertion of an endoscope.
Home Remedies
Before a Barium Enema the patient undergoes a ruthless purge. It is important for the bowel to be clear of faeces for the test to be accurate. That hurdle and the procedure overcome, many patients complain about the Barium in their bowels “setting like concrete”. At this point a less gentle laxative such as coloxyl with senna for a few nights is in order. This combination will clear the bowel of any remaining Barium.
*17/131/5*

Fansidar (Pyrimethamine, Sulfadoxine)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Fansidar(Pyrimethamine,Sulfadoxine)
MORE ABOUT DNA TESTS
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is found in every cell of the human body. It contains the chemical instructions for all of life’s processes. Each of us has DNA formations that are different from anyone else’s. Scientists can pin down the distinctions in each DNA sample. And, finally, they can discern the parentage of a child of contested origin. The odds in favor of being right in such cases are said to be excellent-at least 100,000 to one. The process can take several days.
Says Dr. Richard Roberts, a scientist who discovered some of the chemical tools used in the process: “This is truly exciting. It carries us a quantum leap forward in criminal identification. There is a degree of precision not possible before.” Dr. Roberts is assistant director of research at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, New York.
Dr. Jeffreys developed the technique and coined its name. His wife, Sue, is accorded accolades for suggesting it could be used to establish true parentage.
It was first used for this purpose in 1985, shortly after Dr. Jeffreys’s new invention had been written up in a professional journal. The case involved a family from Ghana with British citizenship. One son went back to Ghana for a visit. On his return to England, authorities found fault with his passport and held him in custody. His lawyer, having read about Dr. Jeffreys’s work, asked to have mother and son tested. When DNA fingerprinting proved their relationship beyond doubt, the boy was released.
“It has astonished me how rapidly the scientific community has used the technology, how rapidly it has been viewed positively by many young lawyers,” Dr. Jeffreys says. “I thought the practical uses were years in the future.” .
Raoul Felder, a leading matrimonial attorney in New York City, says, “We still will have paternity suits, because some people will insist on going to trial- even if I have genetic evidence that is 99.99 percent certain.”
We inherit our DNA from our parents-half from our fathers, half from our mothers. In the British immigration case, Dr. Jeffreys placed the bar charts of mother and son parallel to one another. This showed that the two shared DNA fragments. The other bars on the boy’s chart represented his father’s DNA.
Since then, DNA tests have vastly reduced paternity suits. Confronted with the DNA bar charts, either the biological father yields, or, if the charts show him not to be the father, the mother yields. In such a case in 1989, Coleman Young, the mayor of Detroit, conceded that he was the father of a child after he saw the genetic evidence.
In 1988, DNA testing uncovered a baby switch. Records show that Arlena Twigg was born in 1978 to Ernest and Regina Twigg at Hardee Memorial Hospital in Wauchula, Florida, and died of a heart defect 10 years later. But genetic tests taken before her death proved that the Twiggs were not the child’s biological parents.
Records also show that Kimberly Michelle Mays was born to Robert and Barbara Mays in the same hospital at about the same time as Arlena. The Twiggs tracked down Robert Mays. He agreed to take the DNA parentage tests only if, whatever the results, the Twiggs promised they would not seek custody of Kimberly, barring unusual circumstances (such as proven abuse or neglect of the youngster). The DNA tests revealed that the Twiggs actually were Kimberly Mays’s biological parents.
*67/266/5*

Demadex (Torsemide)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Demadex(Torsemide)
USING LASER FOR TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT STONES, HEART AND MIGRAINE HEADACHES
Urinary Tract Stones
Many urologists use lasers to break up urinary bladder stones. Says Dr. Bryan Shumaker, director of Laser Science and Research for St. John Hospital and Medical Center in Detroit, “The laser produces a flash at a temperature of 100,000 degrees Celsius. Like a nuclear bomb, it creates a shock wave which slams into the stone, smashing it. But the tissue around the stone is unharmed.”
Heart Treatments
Almost 400,000 patients undergo surgery in the United States every year to reduce the cholesterol plaque that has piled up to clog their coronary arteries – blood vessels that serve the heart muscle itself. An additional 400,000 patients have surgery to bypass such blockages. Scientists are searching for ways to keep the blood vessels from re-clogging.
• Balloon angioplasty. A balloon is inserted into an artery, and then inflated, in an effort to compress the plaque and push it back against the arterial walls. The goal is to widen the arterial channel and let the blood flow more freely. The result is circulatory relief, but 30 percent of the arteries clog up again within 6 months.
Migraine Headaches
Dentist Mark Friedman of Mount Vernon, New York, is conducting migraine relief research with a non-cutting “cold” (low-power) laser. Dr. Friedman says pain relief results when he shines a laser on a region of the inner jaw that is tender to the touch for migraine sufferers. This method is experimental and is being assessed by the FDA.
*52/266/5*

Nizoral (Ketoconazole)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

###table###Nizoral(Ketoconazole)
SENSE ORGANS: SIGHT AS A PROCESS
The picturesque name, cataract, developed because a film seemed to “drop” down over the sight, obscuring vision. Occasionally cataracts appear in the newborn infant; sometimes they follow as the result of disease or injury of the eye. By far the most common is the senile cataract, developing usually after middle age and seemingly a part of the aging process. Fortunately a great many such cataracts develop slowly and in one eye more than the other. The duty of the ophthalmologist is to judge whether the patient is getting along well with the better eye and when the cataract is “ripened,” that is, in the best condition for removing. When the proper time has arrived and the operation has been well done, then powerful glasses may give good vision.
So far the apparatus for handling the organ of sight has been described. The real sense organ is the retina, covering about two-thirds of the inner wall of the eyeball. The other sense organs of the body are formed at the ends of nerves. The sensory part of the retina and the optic nerve itself are really an out-pushing of the brain. It is decidedly different from anything else in the body. There are said to be seven million cones in the retina and one hundred million rods. Cones register the different colors, while the rods give us colorless vision even with poor light.
Strangely enough, sight is a chemical process. There is formed in the retina a substance called visual purple. In recent years it has been found that the visual purple cannot be produced in the absence of Vitamin A. Hence night blindness is a striking symptom of this avitaminosis. Knowledge of this phemonon has contributed to the art of the X-ray specialist. These physicians do some of their most important work in the dark room, studying faint shadows on the fluoroscopic screen. Light uses up the visual purple quickly. With plenty of daylight we see well enough, but we seem almost blind when we first enter a dimly lighted movie house. Some of this is due, of course, to the contraction of our pupils. So after lunch my friend Dr. В., the roentgenologist, puts on dark red glasses. These allow the visual purple to accumulate and the pupils to open wide. If he has plenty of time he spends a few minutes in the absolute darkness of the examining room before he begins, with the eyes of an owl, to look at the screen.
There is another way in which sight fatigue may be demonstrated. After you have looked for a while at a brilliantly colored landscape, turn your back on it, stoop over, and survey it between your legs. The increased brightness of the colors will reward you for the undignified attitude that you have assumed. You are using another part of your retina where the visual purple has not been so much used up.
Helmholtz, who thought that he could design a better eye than the one we use, was really one of the greatest of scientists. Among his many achievements was the invention of the ophthalmoscope. This device consists of a circular mirror with an electric light bulb placed at its center so that the light is reflected into the interior of the patient’s eye through the pupil. At the upper edge of the mirror is an opening through which the posterior, internal surface of the eyeball can be viewed.
Attached to the machine is a disk which allows any one of a series of lenses to be placed over the opening, thus bringing the retina into exact focus. To the modern physician the ophthalmoscope may be as valuable as the stethoscope. Many abnormal conditions in the body – diabetes, kidney disease, high blood pressure, and brain tumors, for example – cause changes in the eye, chiefly in the blood vessels. This gives valuable clues in diagnosis.
*59/276/5*