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Archive for the ‘Anti-Herpes’ Category

Famvir (Famciclovir)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

Eric Lander, associate professor of biology at MIT’s Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is among those urging caution to law enforcement agencies now rushing to incorporate DNA fingerprinting into their police procedures. He says the method Dr. Jeffreys has devised may be flawless in theory but is not always so in practice, due to mix-ups that might occur in the laboratory.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation now has its own DNA lab. “Over the past 30 years, we have been doing a lot of research on biological evidence,” says John Hicks of the FBI’s laboratory division. “We know that somewhere in that stuff is the key to helping solve crimes. DNA profiling is the breakthrough we’ve been looking for.”
The FBI is training technicians from police labs throughout the country in DNA fingerprinting. It also encourages the use of universal standards, something Mr. Lander says he favors.
Several states now are taking blood samples from convicted rapists and other violent criminals. Their DNA profiles will be stored in a data bank for use by police across the United States. Using DNA fingerprinting, for example, detectives could trace a rapist convicted in Utah who later rapes in Ohio by matching the DNA “prints” on file with those in traces found on the victims. Statistics show that two of three criminals are arrested within a 3-year period for repeating their offenses.
Civil liberties groups warn that innocents might be convicted in the rush to apply the new technology. “DNA evidence is based on probabilities, not on exact matches,” says Janlori Goldman, who leads the Privacy and Technology Project for the American Civil Liberties Union. “Juries tend to be overwhelmed by the technology. It is a complex science, not easy to reduce to simple terms.”
But criminology is not DNA’s only arena. Dr. Svante Paabo, a researcher in Munich, Germany, formerly at the University of California at Berkeley, has DNA-fingerprinted a 7,000-year-old human brain found in a Florida swamp. He discovered that its DNA is a type unique to American Indians and Asians. “This might be a link to the ancient origins of native Americans,” Dr. Paabo says.
An even greater endeavor is the Human Genome Project. An international cooperative effort of scientists, it will try to map human DNA and the location of every gene it contains. That could lead to the improved detection, prevention, and treatment of all genetic diseases. It also will help with criminal identification: if scientists can pinpoint the gene for eye color, for example, a DNA analysis will tell the criminal’s eye color. Further clues might tell a suspect’s age and other characteristics. Although pessimists believed that the entire genome solution would go well into the next century, it looks as though new techniques have speeded the process.

Bactroban (Mupirocin)

Friday, November 6th, 2009

Other names: Null
A great deal of information as to the bodily health can undoubtedly be obtained by an intelligent examination of the urine. For centuries urine examinations have been done, although there is distinct doubt as to the associated intelligence until modern times. Sir William Osier, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, showed a group of us about the university in 1917, and pointed out on one of the walls a statue of a “urine caster,” a bearded man holding up to the light a glass of urine. Such statues were common on buildings of medieval Europe.
For urine-casting, in those days, was considered without a rival for purposes of diagnosis. Through the centuries, differing and wondrous deductions have been made from the appearance of the urine held up to the light. From “the colours, the quantities and the qualities,” the “learned and expert physician might better judge of the diseases signified,” wrote Hamand in a popular work on uroscopy. “Urine running like silver, of women betokeneth she is with child, if she cast often and have no appetite. Water colour with a dark sky betokeneth death. Urine watery and thin in the aged signifies gout in the feet and joints, proceeding from same. Greenish signifies abduction of blood, inducing yellow jaundice. Red or bloody urine may come from the liver or from a vein or the bladder, which signifies the stone.” Although the physicians of medieval times made these diagnoses seriously, they were the sort that played into the hands of the quack doctors and charlatans, who by the middle of the sixteenth century traveled the country, preying on the credulity of the ignorant. So the early visual examinations were of little real value.
In modern times, the first and simplest examination is for specific gravity, or the relation of the weight of urine to that of water (which has a specific gravity of 1000). If material heavier than water is in solution, the figure is raised. Thus sea water, which has much salt in it, registers higher than fresh water. The normal figure for urine is about 1020, but this can vary greatly. For instance, a copious amount of beer taken by the patient shortly before the test will dilute the patient’s urine so much that his specific gravity will be close to 1000. In diabetes, where much sugar is passed, a high reading is found.
Another test is for albumin in the urine. This is a part of the protein of which the cells of the body are largely formed.
When the kidney is not doing its work perfectly, some of the albumin may show in the urine. As in all laboratory procedures, the test is of value according to the medical intelligence with which it is interpreted. This is illustrated in a story told by the late Dr. James B. Herrick of Chicago. A dignified elderly lady came to him for an examination. He found her in good shape but mentioned that she had a little albumin in her urine. In answer to her questions he tried to reassure her by saying that it was one of the changes of advanced age, just as gray hairs are. Not long after Dr. Herrick met a doctor friend who said: “I met Mrs. Blank recently. She insists that you told her that she has gray hairs in her kidneys.”
Even a little more glimmering of medical knowledge than the lady possessed may lead to health worries. Many people have been disturbed by noticing in their urine a lot of cloudiness or small flakes of material floating about. This is particularly so when the urine is cold. It is caused by what we call urates, or phosphates – perfectly harmless, normal material which disappears on heating, but, of course, patients do not heat up their urine as a physician would. The medieval urine caster has developed into a highly resourceful physician using innumerable clinical and laboratory procedures.
As the urine is entirely formed in the kidneys and undergoes no change in its progress to the outside world, it seems best to discuss its characteristics at this stage. As a matter of fact modern urologists frequently pass fine tubes known as catheters right up to the kidneys and gather the urine there for examination. One great advantage of the procedure is that the urine from each kidney can be examined separately.
The multum in parvo apparatus usually described as two kidneys is occasionally found as one horse-shoe-shaped kidney when the upper poles have fused together. But whatever the shape presented to our rough senses of shape and touch, essentially, as stated above, there are millions of these complete apparatuses, each with the adaptability of a modern electronic device. The blood is carried to them in enormous volumes, as many a surgeon has found to his perturbation, and from it is selected, with great discrimination, water, albumin, salts, poisons, and many other substances hard to classify. All these substances are worked over and sorted and resorted as it were.