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Prograf (Tacrolimus)

###table###Prograf(Tacrolimus)
MAN IN THE MAKING: THE CONTROVERSY DARWIN STARTED
Up to the point to which the story has been so far told, with the placenta beginning to develop and the cells of the embryo multiplying and forming into layers, there has been little to distinguish the growth of a human being from that of other animals. Superficially the cells seem all alike, but minute as they are, their internal structure has a good deal of complication. The material of which the cell is composed is called protoplasm, and embryologists have a rather elaborate description of its arrangement. All that it is necessary to tell you about is a part of it called chromatin. This forms in a ribbon-like shape and breaks up into small pieces called chromosomes. The number of these chromosomes varies with different kinds of animals. Man has a lot.
The chromosomes are the containers of all the characteristics which the individual has inherited. When the sperm unites with the ovum, there ensues a mingling (if that is the correct word) of the chromosomes of both parents. Hence the resulting child inherits characteristics from both sides of the family tree, although usually it cannot be predicted which will predominate.
From now on the mysterious influences contained in the little strips of chromatin cause the embryo to rehearse in a few short months the infinite changes which have taken place in the eons since its ancestors were minute specks of matter floating about in the slightly salty Cambrian Sea. Until comparatively modern times it would have been ridiculous to hint to the general public this story of how the development of the race is epitomized in what goes on in a woman’s womb during pregnancy. But Charles Darwin, a century ago, published The Origin of Species and precipitated great discussions of these biological problems.
Naturally the details are most vaguely grasped except by specially trained scientists, but few of you have failed to learn that the human body starts as a single egg; is then a formless collection of cells; later has gills suggesting that like a fish it is intended for swimming; becomes something like a reptile; soon cannot be easily distinguished from any small quadruped; then grows hair and suggests an ape, and is finally born as a baby which we are proud to admit is a human, although it is still a far cry from a well-developed man or woman. In fact one fond mother admitted that her curled-up infant suggested a cutworm.
There are still people who are outraged by all this and protest that they are not “descended from a monkey.” Others of us who, on a spring morning, see a small shoot of green, indistinguishable from a weed, and a few days later find it transformed into a gorgeous tulip, feel that to be truly miraculous. With the same spirit we are awed by the thought that man, starting from the lowest beginning, may soon arise to something slightly lower than an angel.
It is interesting to know that a little tail appears at one period of gestation but it does not amount to much. We are proud to assert that there is no good evidence that we had a monkey in our family line. The embryo is for a time covered with hair; probably this is what led to the statement that man is descended from an ape. But then an ape is more respectable than a monkey.
Occasionally some of these primitive conditions persist after birth. I have never seen a tail on a human but I have seen many remains of what correspond to gills in a neck. Only last year a young girl was brought to me with a minute opening in the side of her neck where occasionally a drop of moisture would appear. When we operated we found a thin walled tube running among blood vessels and other structures to the tonsil, where we cut it off and removed it. This was a remnant of one of the gill clefts. Much more common is a similar condition, which starts at the skin by the thyroid gland in the front of the neck and runs right to the base of the tongue. This is still another gill cleft. We are warned, however, not to draw the conclusion that somewhere in the past our ancestors were fishes, somewhat similar to what we now see. We may only presume that there was some relationship between our grandparents many billions of generations back and the fish’s progenitors of the same period.
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