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Viramune (Nevirapine)

###table###Viramune(Nevirapine)
FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE: WATER
Water is most important to life. We can survive, at best, for only a few days without water; persons who have been lost in the desert have sometimes perished within 24 hours.
Distribution
About 50 to 60 per cent of the total body weight is made up of water. The proportion varies somewhat, with fat persons having less body water than lean persons. Infants and young children have more body water than older persons.
About three fourths of the water in the body is within the cells; this is referred to as intracellular fluid. The remaining water is in the blood and lymph circulation and in the fluids around the cells and tissues. This is called extracellular fluid.
Functions
Every cell in the body contains water. Muscle tissue contains as much as 80 per cent, fat tissue about 20 per cent, and bone about 25 per cent water.
Water is the solvent for materials within the body. The foods we eat are digested by enzymes in an abundance of digestive juices; the nutrients are carried in solution across the intestinal wall; the blood transports nutrients to all body tissues; materials dissolved in water are transported across the cell membranes; chemical reactions take place in the presence of water; and body wastes are carried by the blood for elimination by the kidneys, lungs, skin, and bowel.
Water is also a lubricant, for it avoids friction between moving body parts. Water regulates the body temperature through its evaporation from the skin, thus giving a cooling effect. On very humid days we feel uncomfortable because water does not evaporate very readily.
Normal water losses
Water is lost from the body through the kidneys, skin, lungs, and bowel. Usually, most of the water is lost in the urine. The amount of urine is related to the daily intake of water and other fluids, and varies from about 600 to 2000 ml. Because the nitrogenous and other materials must be kept in solution, about 600 ml urine is the minimum or obligatory excretion.
An appreciable amount of water is lost through the skin by insensible and visible perspiration. Insensible perspiration is so called because one is not aware of it; it evaporates as rapidly as it is formed. On the other hand, with vigorous activity, especially in warm weather, we lose much additional water through visible perspiration. A baseball player, for example, might lose 3 to 5 liters of fluid through perspiration. Appreciable amounts of urea, salts, and traces of other mineral elements are also lost in the visible perspiration. When we perspire a great deal, the urine volume is reduced.
The adult loses about 350 ml water in the air exhaled through the lungs. The amount of water lost in the feces is small, averaging about 100 to 150 ml daily.
*55/234/5*

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